Anthropological theory of Lombroso
Cesare Lombroso is one of the most famouspsychiatrists and criminologists of Italy. Despite the fact that some consider the findings of his research questionable, Lombroso is the recognized founder of the anthropological trend in forensics.
Student years of the scientist
Cesare Lombroso was born in 1835 in Italianthe city of Verona. After graduating from high school, Lombroso began his studies at the University of Pavia, where he was particularly interested in anthropology, neurophysiology and psychiatry. Teachers were very fond of the student Lombroso - after all, he was very diligent, doing not only the program, but also overtime. In order to better understand the differences between the ethnic groups, Cesare even began to learn foreign languages - Chinese and Aramaic. However, in the future he chose a slightly different path, thanks to which the anthropological theory of Cesare Lombroso became known to the whole world.
Experience in Conclusion
At the age of 18, Lombroso was imprisoned, sinceparticipated in the movement for the unification of Italy and proved to be a suspect in a conspiracy against the government. The student was released in a rather short time: he did not even have academic debts. But staying in the cell made an indelible impression on him. The young man was amazed at how rude his cellmates behaved and what features they had. Cesare even suspected that these people may suffer from cretinism. The theory of criminals Lombroso and the idea of its creation, perhaps, came to the researcher in this sad period of his life.
Measuring the faces of criminals: the experience gained with the help of a caniograph
At the age of 27, Lombroso became a member of the nationalthe uprising that fought for the independence of his people from Austria. After the revolution ended with the defeat of the insurgents, Lombroso continued his work in the military unit - now as a military doctor. At this time, he again creates his own author's device to identify criminals. The cannologist, who used the researcher to measure the noses, chins and brow of suspects in various offenses, did not leave the researcher for a day.
Over time, he collected so manydata that an unexpected idea occurred to him, on which the entire theory of Lombroso is based. The scientist thought: what if the criminals do not become, but are born? After all, according to the scientist, propensities to offenses are the "inheritance" of a person who got it from animals.
The very same criminals, Lombroso thought,must be considered mentally retarded, or degenerate - this is the main position on which the theory of Lombroso was based. Types of criminals were identified by the researcher on external data. All the suspects, whose faces measured Lombroso, had features that made them look like primitive people. Low forehead, large jaws, close-set eyes - these are the signs, according to the conclusions of the scientist, are inclined to violate the law of individuals.
The predecessor of the lie detector invented by Lombroso
Visible manifestations of propensities to criminalactions were not the only passion of the researcher. It should be noted that the devices invented by him were much less popular than the anthropological theory of Lombroso. The scientist developed the predecessor of the modern polygraph. Then this device was called "hydrosgmometer". With the help of his invention Lombroso measured the pulse and pressure of the interrogated, trying to figure out the reaction of their body to the questions posed.
To distinguish the innocent from the criminal: the first experiments with the device
When Lombroso used his device in the firsttime, during interrogation he had a suspect in theft. During the conversation with the detainee, the testimony of the device was no different from the usual - the criminal had no reaction. When he was asked about fraud with other people's passports, the first lie detector detected a change in the indicators. Later it turned out that the interrogated was really a participant in this scam.
The next subject was a suspect inrape case. Law enforcement agencies were in complete confidence that the one they caught, indeed, is an inveterate pimp. But when the investigator showed him a photograph of one of the victims, the hydrosfigmometer did not show any changes in the body of the alleged criminal. In all Lombrozo's arguments, the investigator only dismissed - he believed that the interrogated person was so stiff in his crimes, that remorse, like a sense of fear, is unknown to him.
Then the famous psychiatrist suggestedsuspect to solve a complex mathematical problem in order to find out whether this is really so. When the detainee saw the task, the device immediately recorded the changes - which meant that fear was still known to him. Soon the Lombrozo theory was confirmed - an additional investigation revealed the real criminal, and the suspect, who did not know how to solve the problem, was rightly released.
Since then, the device invented by Cesare has undergonesignificant transformation. But the pioneer in this area to this day is the Italian criminologist. Today, the lie detector is used not only in law enforcement, but also in many large companies.
Theory of Cesare Lombroso about genius
In 1863, the famous book was publishedLombroso called "Genius and insanity." The basis for the work was the information collected by the researcher while working in a psychiatric clinic. Under the close attention of Lombrozo was the behavior of patients, their creativity, the themes that they chose for their drawings or records. The scientist tried to find out how much one can judge about a person's mental health from his creative works.
The theory of Lombroso about genius, formedon the basis of his observations, says: artistic abilities are hereditary - and pass from ancestors along with mental deviations. After Lombroso made his conclusions, he began to seek their confirmation in history. The researcher began to study the biographies of great people and came to the conclusion that many of them were not only geniuses, but also madmen. Among them, he included, for example, the composers of Mozart, Beethoven, Gluck.
The theory of Lombroso, concerning genius, is soin a way, put in a single row both neurotic tendencies and giftedness. One of the arguments in her favor Lombroso considered the increased sensitivity of both the mentally ill and the genius. The difference between these two extremes, according to the scientist - in the reaction of people to the world around them. The same event for a genius can be a trigger for discovery, and for a neurotic - the cause of an even greater mental disorder.
The anthropological theory of Cesare Lombroso: the gift of the Jews
The researcher discovered an interestingthe relationship between nationality and the number of talented people. In the first place in terms of the number of both geniuses and neurotics, there are Jews. Lombroso explains this pattern as follows: the Jewish people were constantly persecuted, so he passed a rather brutal selection. The researcher cites the following figures: for 384 people Jews have one crazy person.
Representatives of the same Catholic faiththis coefficient is five times lower. Lombroso also believed that the genetic predisposition, in contrast to education, is a factor of genius. The biological theory of Lombroso is confirmed by certain arguments that the scientist leads. For example, he points to the fact that the music of 8 generations was played in the Bach family, and 57 people enjoyed popularity in this field.