Apollon Grigoriev - Russian poet, literary critic and translator. Biography, creativity
Apollon Alexandrovich Grigoriev is one of the most famous Russian theater and literary critics of the 19th century. It is considered the founder of the so-called organic criticism. In addition, he was engaged in versification and wrote autobiographical prose. About the life and work of this person we will talk in this article. Also consider his work on the works of Pushkin and Ostrovsky.
Apollon Grigoriev: a biography. Childhood
The future critic was born in 1822 in Moscow. This event was very dramatic. The fact is that Tatiana Andreevna, the daughter of a serf who served as a coachman for his father, became the mother of Apollo Alexandrovich. Alexander himself loved the girl very much, but they could get married only a year after the birth of his son. Thus, Apollo was not only illegitimate, but he could also be recorded in the serfs.Fearing this, the parents sent the child to the Moscow educational home, all the pupils of which were enrolled in the petty-bourgeois class.
Immediately after the wedding, the parents returned the child from the orphanage. Therefore, he stayed there for only a year. However, he was able to get rid of his middle-class title only in 1850. In addition, his entire youth he was constantly reminded of the low origin.
In 1838, Apollon Grigoriev, without finishing the gymnasium, successfully passed the entrance examinations to Moscow University, after which he was admitted to the law faculty. Initially, he was going to enter the literary, but his father insisted that his son receive a more lucrative profession.
Studying for Grigoriev was the only way to get rid of the inferiority complex and to stand out among peers not with its low background, but with knowledge. However, it was not so simple. Some were more talented than him, for example, A.A. Fet and Ya.P. Polonsky. Others boasted noble origin. All of them had a great advantage - they were full-fledged students, but Apollo was a simple listener.
First love and graduation
In 1842 Apollon Grigoriev received an invitation to the house of Dr. Korsch. There he met his daughter Antonina and immediately fell in love with a girl. She was 19 years old and she was very beautiful. This girl is dedicated to the first love poems of the writer. In them, Grigoriev is frank to the extreme: he is sure of reciprocity on the part of Antonina (for example, “The secret is over you to me ...”), then he realizes that she is a stranger to him. In the family, the doctors annoyed him all but his beloved. Nevertheless, he came there every day. However, his hopes did not come true, the girl did not respond to him in return.
In 1842 Apollon Alexandrovich Grigoriev graduated from the university and received the degree of candidate. He is no longer a tradesman. Then he was in charge of the university library for a year, which was a very honorary position. And in 1843, by competition, he was elected secretary of the Council of Moscow University.
However, he did not meet expectations. In the work he showed disgust and disregard for his paper-bureaucratic duties. He also managed to make a lot of debt.
The poet Apollon Grigoriev, one might say, was officially born in August 1843, when his poems were first published in the Moskvityanin magazine. True, it was published then under the pseudonym A. Trismegistov.
In 1845, Grigoriev began to cooperate with the Notes of the Fatherland and the Repertoire and the Pantheon, where he posted his poems and the first critical articles.
In 1846 the first collection of poems of the poet was published. However, the criticism meets him rather coolly and does not take him seriously. After that, Grigoriev began to write not so much himself as to translate foreign poets, including Shakespeare, Byron, Moliere, etc.
In 1847 he moved to St. Petersburg from St. Petersburg and tried to settle down. Marries Lydia Corsch, sister of Antonina. In 1950 he began working at Moskvityanin.
Fight critical schools
Apollon Grigoriev, whose poems were not particularly popular at the time, became the main theoretician of the Moskvite. At the same time, a fierce struggle with St. Petersburg magazines began. Most often, it was Grigoriev who was attacked by opponents. The war was fought on an ideological level, but the Petersburg critic was rather weak, with the exception of Apollo Aleksandrovich himself, and could not defend herself adequately. Particularly attacked were chanting Grigoriev Ostrovsky. As the years passed, the critic himself recalled these articles with shame.And he understood how stupid he was.
In the 60s, the unpopularity of Grigoriev reached its apogee. His articles completely stopped reading, and the Moskvityanin closed after some time.
Collaboration with Dostoevsky and death
In 1861, the Dostoevsky brothers created The Time magazine, with which Apollo Grigoriev began to cooperate. Soon a group of “poetry writers” was grouped here, who treated the critic with respect. Gradually, Grigoriev began to feel that his broadcasts were cool, and he went to Orenburg to work as a teacher for a year. After the return, he again collaborated with "Time", but not for long: the magazine was closed in 1863.
Grigoriev began writing reviews for productions in Anchor, which had an unexpected success. He analyzed the play of the actors in detail, displaying a delicate taste in his assessments.
In 1864, the project "Time" returned under the new name - "Epoch". Grigoriev again becomes the "first critic" of the magazine. But it does not stand up to stress, falls seriously ill and dies on September 25, 1864. The critic and poet were buried at the Mitrofani cemetery.
In 1876, after the death, the critic of his article gathered NN in one volume. Fears.However, this edition was not popular. Nevertheless, among the small circles of literary critics, the significance of the critical notes that Apollo Grigoriev wrote greatly increased. His poems, however, even they did not take seriously. We can say that poetry was only a passion for the writer, and the main thing was the criticism.
However, even they did not succeed in holistically describing Grigoriev’s world view due to the fragmentation of articles and lack of discipline of thought. Many of the critics noted that his wild life was reflected in the same unorganized work. That is why until now no one has managed to clearly formulate the idea of Grigoriev’s worldview. Nevertheless, the critic himself called it "organic" and contrasted it with all others existing in the 19th century.
About the play by Ostrovsky "Thunderstorm"
Apollo Grigoriev about the play "The Thunderstorm" expressed a lot of enthusiasm in his articles. The critic put forward the poetry of national life, which was most clearly reflected in Boris's meeting with Katerina (the end of the 3rd act). Grigoriev saw in the description of the meeting incredible imagery, closeness to nature and poetry.He even noted that this scene was created as if by the people themselves.
The critic also noted the evolution of Ostrovsky’s creativity and the significant difference between The Thunderstorm and the author’s previous plays. Nevertheless, in the article about this play, Grigoriev goes away from the main idea, discusses abstract topics, more theorizes and argues with other critics, than he speaks directly about the work.
Apollon Grigoriev on Pushkin’s "Caucasian Cycle"
It was Apollo Grigoriev who authored the famous phrase “Pushkin - our everything”. The great poet the critic called those who could portray a "complete sketch of the type of the Russian soul." He calls the "Caucasian cycle" youthful, almost childish, in Pushkin's poetry. However, he notes that even then the poet’s ability to synthesize foreign cultures is manifested and, through their prism, show the true Russian soul.
Apollo Grigoriev called the “Caucasian Captive” “brilliant childish prattle”. Also with a share of neglect, he belonged to other works of this time. Nevertheless, in everything the critic saw precisely the exaltation of the Russian people. And Pushkin was able to more closely approach this goal, according to Grigoriev.