Architect Kazakov Matvey Fedorovich: biography, famous works. Senate building in the Moscow Kremlin
The architecture of Russia of the 18th century is associated with the formation of the era of classicism, which is characterized by brevity, simplicity, following the traditions and lightness. The preceding main manifestations of which were exclusivity and pomp, demanded tremendous costs. Therefore, it was necessary to change the direction of architecture for a more budget and democratic.
At the beginning of the 18th century, the culture of the Russian Empire continued to reach the European level. There was an opportunity to invite foreign masters to Russia and travel outside the country to Germany, England, Italy.
Creating a new direction in architecture was necessary in order to emphasize the individuality of the country and its greatness.The best architects engaged in the restructuring of cities. In Moscow, one of the architects was Matvey Fedorovich Kazakov.
Biography of the architect
MF Kazakov was born in 1738 in Moscow. The architect’s father was a serf who, by chance, was sent to work at a branch in the Admiralty. This circumstance allowed the family to live in the center of Moscow and get out of the peasant bondage.
The father of the future architect died when the boy was only eleven years old. After that, the mother decided to give Matthew to the school of architects. Nine years of study were not in vain for the boy - by the age of twenty he had a good and rich experience, because the main study time was busy repairing obsolete Kremlin buildings.
Since 1768, the architect Kazakov began working with the great Russian master, Vasily Bazhenov. For more than seven years they have worked together on the project of the Kremlin Palace. As a result of misunderstanding, the project failed, but the invaluable experience was preserved for many years.
The first independent work was the construction of the Prechistensky Palace. After the approval of the project by the empress on the architect Kazakov fell a heap of proposals.The architect was awarded the title of city architect, and he began working on the Traveling Palace in St. Petersburg. In parallel, Matvey Fedorovich began designing the building of the Senate. It was the building of the Senate in the Moscow Kremlin that became the first monuments of classicism.
The rotunda, a cylindrical building topped with a dome, becomes the favorite form of the architect’s buildings. A characteristic reception of the master is a bright contrast in the strict facade of the building and the lush rich decoration of the rooms inside.
Then the architect Kazakov designed the Prechistensky Palace, which after the invasion of Napoleon's troops burned and was rebuilt. At the end of the 18th century, the architect Kazakov built the building of the Golitsyn Hospital in Moscow.
The main project of Matthew is participation in 1782 in the construction of the first building of Moscow University, which was under construction for more than thirty years and rebuilt many times. In each district of the capital of Russia there will be at least one manor built under the leadership of Kazakov.
In connection with the events taking place in the country at the beginning of the 19th century, relatives took him away from Moscow. The news of the fire struck a blow to the architect.The idea that the masterpieces he had created were forever destroyed, greatly disappointed him. In October 1812, the great architect of Russia died in Ryazan.
Projects outstanding master
Many monuments were damaged during the fire of 1812 and were reconstructed. Among them:
- Prechistensky Cathedral in Moscow.
- Church of Metropolitan Phillip.
- The old building of Moscow State University.
- Noble assembly.
- Temple of the Ascension.
- Pavlovsk and Golitsyn hospitals.
- Homesteads of Gubin, Demidov and Baryshnikov.
Construction of the Senate building in the Moscow Kremlin began by decree of Empress Catherine in 1776.
The palace is a triangle with a small courtyard inside, which is divided into three parts. Along the perimeter of the courtyard built corridors connecting all parts of the room with each other. The corners of the building are cut and decorated with neat balconies. The palace consists of three floors, standing on a high wide base. The ground floor is lined with rustic stone, the second and third are separated by pilasters. The arch, which opens the entrance to the inner part of the courtyard, rests on stable columns decorated with a four-wheeled marble portico.
At the top of an isosceles triangle is the Catherine Hall with a huge dome. Its diameter is 24 m. There is a legend that claims that in order to prove the strength of such a wide round dome, the architect Kazakov had to climb to the top and stand, dancing about more than thirty minutes. Inside the hall is decorated with plaster and bas-relief portraits of the great Russian princes and rulers, with sculptural panels on allegorical plots from the life of Empress Catherine. The height of the hall to the top of the dome is about 30 m. The dome was decorated with a zinc sculpture of St. George the Victorious, which was destroyed by Napoleon's troops.
The construction of the palace was carried out until 1787. Initially it was assumed that the building will be the residence of the Senate - the Supreme Authority of the Russian Empire. During the reign of V. I. Lenin, his office was located here. Currently, the palace is the working residence of Vladimir Putin.
Construction of the Prechistensky Palace
It began in 1774 on the occasion of the arrival of Catherine II to Moscow to celebrate the victory over Turkey. The empress did not like to settle in the Kremlin, considering it unfit for life.After receiving the news in the autumn that Catherine would visit Moscow with her entire retinue, Prince Golitsyn raised the commotion. Architect Matvey Kazakov was tasked to transform the house for an expensive guest.
The house of the Golitsyns at the corner of Volkhonka was taken as the basis for the apartments of Catherine; they decided to join the houses of the Lopukhins and Princes Dolgorukiy to it. Combining the three buildings into one is not an easy task. Unfortunately, the ingenious plan failed - the empress was unhappy with the building. Cold cramped rooms, round-the-clock smell from the stables, long corridors did not lead anyone to delight. Catherine lived in the palace for about five months.
In 1860, the Golitsyn Museum was located here, later the National Museum of Culture of the city of Moscow was opened. Prechistensky Palace is currently located at 1/14, Znamensky Pereulok.
Temple of Philip, Metropolitan of Moscow
In 1777, Matthew Fyodorovich began an extensive reconstruction of a stone building. Construction lasted ten years. Currently, the temple is located at ul. Gilyarovskogo, house 35.
After the revolution of 1917, the church had to be closed, the services resumed only in the early 1990s.Fortunately, the appearance of the church was not damaged and is currently a unique example of classicism in architecture.
University on Mokhovaya in Moscow
This is the old building of Moscow State University. It was built by decree of Empress Catherine II. The architect Kazakov took up the project in 1782; construction lasted until 1793.
The architecture of the building perfectly fit into the picture of the center of Moscow of the 18th century. Matvey Fedorovich achieved both grandeur and simplicity, recreating the project in the style of classicism. Columns with porticos were erected, huge halls with high domes were created, and rusting was used.
Unfortunately, the building body has not retained its original appearance. For almost 250 years of existence, the building was rebuilt many times. Currently students are also studying there.
Built by order of Prince Dolgoruky in 1787 in the very center of Moscow.
The two-story building, decorated with a portico with columns, based on the basement and connected by an elegant arch. The main attraction of the project is the Column Hall. Unfortunately, in 1812 the building of the Noble Assembly was waiting for the fate of many buildings of the capital - it also burned. Not without restoration.The latter was held at the beginning of the 20th century: the third floor was added, but the Great Hall remained untouched. In this form, the building has survived to this day.
The main attention architect Kazakov devoted to the interior decoration: large crystal chandeliers, monumental columns along the snow-white walls. At first, the walls and ceiling were decorated with canvases by famous artists, but after the fire they were not restored.
The noble assembly served not only as the seat of the princes and courtyards of the courtyard. Here balls were also held, which at one time attracted Pushkin, Lermontov, Yusupov.
It was built at the beginning of the 17th century, and in 1793 it was reconstructed by Matthew Fedorovich. It is one of the monuments of Russian early classicism. Volumetric round hall, surrounded by columns, a wide overhanging dome with a spire - all that is characteristic of the works of the architect Kazakov.
In the refectory two chapels are consecrated: Nicholas and in the name of Moses the Bogovidtse. The latter was the result of the use of materials from the destroyed Moiseevsky monastery (located on the site of the Manege Square).
After the revolution, the temple was closed and began work only in the early 1990s.
It was discovered at the beginning of the 19th century.It was built at the expense of Prince Golitsyn by an outstanding Russian architect, Matvey Fedorovich Kazakov.
In the 19th century was included in the list of the best hospitals in Europe. The hospital houses the clinical base of the Moscow Medical University.
The hospital building, like the rest of the works of the architect Matvey Kazakov, is an outstanding monument of Moscow architecture of the classicism era. The portico, organized from six large columns, creates a kind of main entrance to the hospital. A wide dome with a towering belvedere allows you to see the building from a distance.
Currently part of the Moscow City Hospital.
It was built by Kazakov in 1802. Currently located on Myasnitskaya Street.
The owner of the mansion, Ivan Baryshnikov, was a great connoisseur of architecture and art. The house was a large collection of paintings by famous artists. The merchant devoted time to self-education, on his initiative, educational institutions were built in the cities of Russia. The house miraculously survived the fire, but was looted.
The estate was built by the architect Kazakov in the shape of the letter P, which allowed the owners to consider their house as a real palace.The forward portico, which was widely used in the era of classicism, visually enlarges the courtyard area. Columns standing on a high base give solemnity to the facade of the building.
Today, the office of the Russian newspaper Argumenty i Fakty is located in the mansion.