Central economic region: characteristics, cities, problems
The composition of the Central Economic Region is as follows: Oryol, Tver, Bryansk, Smolensk, Kaluga, Tula, Ryazan, Moscow, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Ivanovo regions, as well as Moscow. Its total length is 485.1 thousand square meters. km
The central economic region has a relatively favorable geographical and economic position. It is located at the intersection of land roads and waterways, which for many years contributed to the convergence of the Russian lands, the development of various types of economic ties and trade. The central economic region is bordered by Ukraine and Belarus, and from the Russian regions - by the North, North-West, Volga, Volga-Vyatka, as well as the Central Black Soil Region. Economic relations are actively developing with them.The city of Moscow, the capital of Russia, is located on the territory of CED. It is this region that plays the leading role among all other economic regions of our country.
Relatively favorable are the natural conditions for the life and economic activities of people. This ensures the development of the Central Economic Region. There is a moderate continental climate, which contributes to the management of the economy, the maximum exploitation of social and industrial facilities. Conditions allow growing technical and grain crops, vegetables, potatoes, gardening, as well as developing various branches of animal husbandry.
Geographically, the climatic situation in the area varies. The best conditions are in the southern regions. In Oryol and Tula there are significant areas of forest-steppe with a predominance of leached and podzolized chernozem.
Dark gray soils, gray and gray forest soils are widespread in the central part of this region. If we talk about the north (Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo and Tver regions), then the soil here is mostly sod-podzolic,which require significant reclamation work (anti-erosion measures, liming acidic soils or, for example, draining wetlands), as well as fertilizing in order to increase fertility. Famous rivers originate within the CEA — the Dnieper, the Western Dvina, the Volga, and others.
The central economic region occupies a special place in our country in terms of population, diversity of appearance and types of settlements, number of towns and cities. About 30.3 million people live here, that is, almost 21% of the country's population. The population density is 62.6 people / km2. The central economic region is rich in densely populated cities as well as settlements. The population density in the north is 15-20 people / km.2, and in the south and west - 50-70 persons / km2. Kostroma region is less densely populated, and the most - Moscow. 82.5% is the share of residents in cities, if we consider the Central Economic District. The population of villages is about 17%. This is a relatively small proportion in the total population. The main reason for reducing the number of villagers is their outflow to the cities. In Tula,Vladimir, Ivanovo regions, as well as in the Moscow region, the population is not connected in any way with agriculture, a significant proportion of the population.
Central Russia includes many large clusters of settlements, as well as single villages and cities. In the Moscow agglomeration today, about half of the population of the region lives. Other largest agglomerations include Yaroslavl and Tula. The versatility, favorable transport conditions, territorial proximity, as well as the special role of urban industry are important reasons for establishing close ties between them. Large cities are characterized by significant growth rates. This is due to the fact that there is concentrated industry, there is a developed social infrastructure. Ancient cities also dominate among industrial and administrative centers. This, for example, Kolomna, Vyazma, Vladimir, Ryazan, Smolensk.
It should be noted among the biological resources of the forest reserves, a significant part of which are conifers. The northern part of the region is characterized by the largest forest cover, especially the Tver and Kostroma regions. The forests to the south are depleted.They are mainly of recreational, water protection and environmental importance. Timber stock does not meet the needs of local residents. A significant part of lumber and forest raw materials imported from the Volga-Vyatka, Northern and other areas. Local substandard forest waste and raw materials are poorly used.
Fuel and energy resources
The central region of Russia is poor in fuel and energy resources. Suburban brown coal pool presents fuel reserves. It is located on the territory of Smolensk, Tver, Ryazan, Tula and Kaluga regions. Coal reserves are 4.4 billion tons, and up to 60 m is the depth. Predominantly conducted mining. Near Moscow coal energetically low quality. They have a low calorie content, they are multi-ash, contain sulfur in their composition, and are also overmoistened, which means low transportability. However, they are important for the power industry of the area.
But the resources of peat central region of Russia is rich. About 35 billion cubic meters are reserves of raw peat. In the Tver, Ivanovo, Kostroma, Moscow and Yaroslavl regions are industrial peatlands. The deep chemical processing of this raw material in the areas of its concentration could have a great effect.
Hydropower reserves are small. They are mainly concentrated in the Ryazan, Kostroma and Tver regions, where there is a developed hydrographic network. The reservoir systems are located on the Oka, Volga and other rivers. But because of the backward technology and high water consumption, central Russia is experiencing certain difficulties with water supply. In the Yaroslavl region, significant oil and gas areas have recently been explored, but still far from production. Other difficulties include the importation of food and the crisis of engineering production. These are serious problems of the Central Economic Region that need to be resolved as soon as possible.
Other raw materials
The economy of this region is focused mainly on imported oil, fuel oil and gas from the Volga region, Western Siberia and the North. In the CER, several deposits of iron ore are known from mineral raw materials (Oryol and Tula regions). Only Tula ores are of industrial importance. The central economic region, the characteristic of which we are interested in, has insignificant phosphate reserves in the Moscow and Bryansk regions.It is provided with various building materials. Margel, limestone, cement raw materials are the resources of the Central Economic Region, which are available in the Moscow, Bryansk, Oryol and Ryazan regions. Kaluga and Tula are rich in gypsum. In some places there are ceramic and glass clay, sand.
Central economic region: industries
In this area, formed a complex industrial complex mainly manufacturing industries and industries. Moscow is the main industrial center. A large share in the products of the CED, as well as the entire country, is the production of the capital. Other major cities of the Central economic region that are industrial centers are Vladimir, Tver, Bryansk, Tula, Yaroslavl, Smolensk, etc.
It should be noted that metalworking and mechanical engineering (29% of the total industrial output of a given region) take the first place in our country in terms of the number of employees and marketable products. Products are produced in a wide range, often of high quality. They are in demand in the markets of this area, as well as other regions of Russia, are exported.
The central economic region, the characteristics of which are presented in this article, focuses primarily on the production of accurate and complex products that do not require large amounts of electricity, fuel and raw materials. Therefore, the most important industries remain electronic, radio, instrument-making, electrical, as well as the production of controls and automation, etc.
The main subjects of the Central economic region engaged in these types of industries: Moscow, Moscow, Tula, Yaroslavl, Oryol, Vladimir, Kaluga, Smolensk and Ryazan. The tool and machine tool industries have been developed in Moscow (production of tools, complex automatic lines and machines), the Moscow Region (Dmitrov, Yegoryevsk, Kolomna), Ryazan (forging and pressing heavy equipment), Ivanovo, Sasov and Sukhinichi.
The manufacture of transport vehicles is particularly prominent in the industry of the region: river vessels, cars, diesel locomotives, automobiles, etc. The chemical industry accounts for 7% of the total industrial output of a given region.This industry is focused on a large production potential of CED, qualified personnel and a scientific base, on consumers within the district itself, and also partially on local raw materials (lignite, phosphates, rock salt). The region of interest for the development of various types of chemical industry leads among others. It is here that about 10% of mineral fertilizers are produced in Russia: in Voskresensk (superphosphate, phosphoric flour), in the Tula and Bryansk regions (nitrogen fertilizers).
As for the chemistry of organic synthesis, one can mention Yaroslavl, Efremov (plastics, rubber), Moscow (tires), Vladimir (perfumery, varnishes). The shortage of energy, water, raw materials, as well as the difficult environmental situation hinders the development of the chemical industry in the area.
Another important specialization of the Central Economic Region is the large petrochemical and oil refining industries (Ryazan, Yaroslavl, Moscow). He leads the production of chemical fibers in Russia (Tver, Ryazan, Serpukhov).
However, it is not only these industries that characterize the Central Economic Region. Its industry, both heavy and light, is well developed.Let's talk about the latter.
9% of the total products of the region is light industry. These are 87% of the fabrics produced in our country. Its largest and oldest branch is textile. 43% of silk, 58% of woolen, 78% of linen, 83% of Russian cotton fabrics are produced here.
The cotton, silk, linen, footwear and wool industries are developed in the area - Moscow, Ivanovo, Kostroma, Tver, Noginsk, Moscow region, etc.
13% of the total production of this area is electric power. In the regional economy, it is the highly developed electric power industry that plays the base role. The fuel industry also has a certain value. CED is one of Russia's largest producers of heat and electricity. Powerful CHP is located in the metropolitan region. They use fuel oil and natural gas, sometimes coal, as fuel. Shaturskaya and Kashirskaya TPPs operate on natural gas. In the Tula region on the coal mined in the suburban basin, are Shchekinskaya, Cherepetskaya, Novomoskovskaya GRES. The role of hydropower stations in the area is small.
The agro-industrial complex here is mainly of a natural nature. Its share is 2.3% of the GRP of the area. It is developing quite intensively. The following areas of agricultural specialization can be distinguished: flax growing (Smolensk, Tver, Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Kaluga, Ivanovo regions), grain growing (Bryansk, Ryazan, Tula, Oryol regions), potatoes and vegetables, sugar beet, milk, livestock (Bryansk, Moscow , Ryazan, Tula region).