Chetya Mineya - books for reading
To a person far from the church, in the phrase"Even the Menaion" does not understand either the first or second word. Since the noun is a "mage" here, one has to start an explanation with it. The church-liturgical book, which includes all the services of the annual circle, is called "menaia". Months in the year 12, and it consists of 12 books (complete). The name is borrowed from the Greek language, and in translation means "monthly" - mhnaion (mhn - month). In each book there are texts for a month in the order corresponding to the services of the daily circle: the evening (according to Moses, the day begins in the evening) - the ninth hour, vespers, suites, etc., before the Liturgy.
Difference from minigames
"Chetya Mineya", existing along withThe above liturgical book refers not to this kind of books, but rather to church books, and contains the lives of saints, located also by months, and in the month by days. These texts are intended for reading during extracurricular time. And the title is translated "chetya minya", consisting of Old Slavonic and Greek words, as "monthly reading", which contains immense information for hagiography - a science that studies the lives of saints. Here is also the church-teaching material, which was the main reading in Ancient Rus. The Great Fourth Micaeus of Metropolitan Macarius was a kind of a collection of Rusich literature, as evidenced by himself: "I collected all the books of the Russian lands."
Wrote and read in ancient times
The first books in Russia date back to the 10th century. This period is called "pre-Mongolian". In the 12th century manuscript, known as the Assumption Compendium, there is The Life of Theodosius of the Caves and The Tale of Boris and Gleb. They are so formed that they might well be perceived as the month of May for May. But these narratives are not included in church collections, entirely consisting of translated material. Some attempts at reprocessing these books for reading have been made at different times, for example, in the 15th century, but there are few concrete examples.
Literary feat Makariya
But already in the 16th century the above-mentionedThe Great Fourth Menaion Macarius. In them, in addition to translated texts, there are original accompanying materials - patristic teachings and apocrypha, sometimes very voluminous. They, as a rule, were timed to the days of memory of one or another saint. The Chetya Mineya of the Moscow Assumption Cathedral, one of four, known to date, is the only one that has been preserved completely. It is kept in the synodal library of the cathedral. The other three Menaion Quets are incomplete lists. For Ivan the Terrible was written Mineya, which is missing in March and April. The other two are lists of the Chudova Monastery and the Sofia Library. These are the only 4 lists representing the Great Fourth Menaion of the Archbishop of Novgorod Makarii, later Metropolitan of Moscow, surviving to the present day.
Other ascetics in this field
Later, in the XVII century, attempts continuedwriting church books for extracurricular reading. So, M. Milutin spiritually erudite literary magazine "Readings in the Society of Lovers of spiritual enlightenment", which came out until 1871, meticulously describes menology priest of Christ Church of St. John Milutin, which he wrote together with his three sons from 1646 to 1654 years. They are stored in the Moscow Synodal Library. Considers M. Milutin and menology Jerome Trinity-Sergius Monastery, a professional scribe and the scribe Herman Tulupova, written in 1627-1632, respectively, and stored in the library of St. Sergius.
A famous spiritual writer
Particular attention should be paid to Mitya DmitriyRostov, which represent a multi-volume work "The Book of the Life of the Saints," which was published in fragments, quarters from 1689 to 1705. The original sources for the book of St. Dimitry were, of course, the Four Masons Makariya and the "Acts of the Saints", published by the Catholic Congregation of Bollandists, which consisted mainly of Jesuit monks. The organization was named after its founder Jean Bolland. That is, the works that formed the basis for the "Book of the Lives of the Saints" were the most serious, and Metropolitan Dmitriy of Rostov's Metropolitan Metropolitanate turned out to be remarkable. For this spiritual writer and preacher, bishop of the Russian Church, in the world Danilo Savich Tuptalo, in 1757 was glorified in the face of the saints of the Russian Orthodox Church. And after his death, the main work of the whole life of St. Dmitry Rostovsky was supplemented by a description of his own life. The feast day of the saint is September 21. The book was reprinted repeatedly and was always in great demand among believers. The popularity of the author is such that a legend has developed: if a believer asks for protection from Dmitry Rostovsky, all saints will defend him, whose life-history he gave strength and knowledge.