Clinical blood tests for blood diseases
For diseases are mandatory procedures. In the case of a diagnosed pathology, clinical studies are carried out repeatedly. Hematological diseases belong to the group of severe ailments, often leading to the death of the patient. The cause of disappointing statistics often is the late recognition of the disease. The symptoms of the majority of pathologies of the hematopoietic system appear only in the last stages - during this period the treatment is ineffective and has an exclusively palliative nature. But even if the disease gives alarming “bells” when, according to all forecasts, the chances of recovery are high enough, patients often simply do not notice them, referring to stress, the common cold and chronic fatigue.
To say that a general blood test shows blood diseases would be completely wrong. This is the easiest way to clinical research.According to its results, it is impossible to pinpoint the pathology, but with the help of its main indicators, doctors can confirm the presence of an inflammatory process, leading to changes in the composition of the liquid movable tissue. In addition to the general blood test, with blood diseases, and more precisely, if they are suspected, other diagnostic methods are used. Before proceeding to their detailed examination, it is worth clarifying what indicators indicate hematological pathologies and what, in fact, falls into the category of diseases of the hematopoietic system.
A few words about the causes of hematological diseases
Medicine separates congenital and acquired blood diseases. The first group includes diseases transmitted by inheritance. The most striking example is hemophilia - an illness that is characterized by a clotting disorder.
Acquired diseases develop throughout the life of the patient. The most common cause of them is a malfunction of the immune system. Acquire blood disease after adverse chemical or radioactive effects on the body.
What are the indicators determine hematology?
Conditionally pathological processes of the hematopoietic system are divided into several types:
- Decrease (singing) or increase (filia) the number of blood cells.
- Changing the shape of the cells of liquid mobile tissue (hereditary microspherocytosis).
- Pathology of blood coagulation.
- Benign diseases (anemia).
- Oncology (leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndrome, etc.).
Many people are surprised when they find out which blood test for blood diseases is the most informative method of research. He is appointed primarily in case of suspicion of various ailments. This is a hemogram, or, as most people know, a complete blood count. In case of blood diseases, as well as in case of suspected pathology, the test is taken from the finger. This type of research allows you to find out the exact amount:
- red blood cells;
White blood cells
White blood cells, which are responsible for the protective reactions of the immune system in the event of exposure to adverse factors from the outside. In a healthy person, they are contained in the amount of 4-9 g / liter of blood.Complete blood count for diseases from the field of hematology shows clear deviations from normal values, which may be as follows:
- In the case of an increase in the number of white blood cells (leukocytosis), doctors make conclusions about the ongoing inflammatory process, intoxication of the body or damage by parasites. However, exceeding the norm of leukocytes may indicate such terrible diseases as Hodgkin's lymphoma or lymphoma.
- The decrease in the number of these blood cells indicates a high probability of a malignant disease of the blood or immunodeficiency, which can serve as an indirect sign of HIV.
- With a normal number of leukocytes, but changing their size or shape, we can also talk about diseases of the hematopoietic system.
Red blood cells
A blood test with a blood disorder (anemia) will show a decrease in the number of red blood cells. Erythrocytes are responsible for transporting oxygen to the cells of the tissues of the whole organism, therefore, when reducing their concentration or changing shape, a person feels tired, dizzy, weak. The cause of anemia can be:
- iron deficiency;
- chronic bleeding;
- increased red blood cell breakdown in the spleen;
- reduction of cell synthesis due to an abnormality of the hematopoietic germ in the bone marrow.
If the quantitative indicator is within the normal range, but red bodies do not transport oxygen, experts talk about changes in their membrane or shape. Such erythrocytes are not functional, they can not provide a full supply of oxygen to the cells. Equally dangerous is the increase in this indicator. An excessive concentration of red blood cells can be indicated by thickening of the blood, which forces the heart to work with increased stress.
Their main function is to protect the body from blood loss due to the formation of a blood clot in the damaged vessel. However, there are a number of diseases, which shows a blood test when the number of platelets deviates from the norm. These include:
- Thrombocytosis The development of a tendency to the formation of blood clots in the vessels on the background of increasing cell levels.
- Thrombocytopathy. With a normal numerical index, the cells themselves change and lose their ability to protect the body from blood loss.
- Thrombocytopenia. Decrease in platelet level, which occurs, as a rule, in the suppression of hematopoietic functions.
This element is an integral part of the red blood cell. In fact, it depends on its parameters how well oxygen transport will be carried out. In the bloodstream, hemoglobin is found in limited quantities.
Thus, it is not possible to determine the disease by blood analysis. The formula of its composition can only indirectly indicate the likelihood of the development of a disease.
In addition to the clinical (general) analysis of blood, for blood diseases, it is necessary to undergo other studies. In addition to the conclusion of a hemogram, it is important for doctors to obtain diagnostic results confirming the quality of clotting. The indication for this research procedure is the need to determine the exact level in the blood:
- hemoglobin and the degree of saturation of red blood cells;
- average volume of red blood cells;
- total white blood cell count.
In addition, it is equally important for specialists to obtain data on the width of the distribution of erythrocytes by volume, and the total number of white blood cells suggests a pathological or malignant process.Changes in leukogram are expressed in formulary calculations of the percentage of different types of cells. The coagulability of mobile liquid tissue against the background of light bleeding is also investigated. During the procedure, determine the amount, size, width of the distribution of platelets by volume.
Based on the results of blood tests for blood diseases, the attending physician will be able to make a real diagnosis. Determining the type of pathology largely depends on the specific disorders at the cellular level. For this reason, hematologists distinguish several types of diseases. Some of them are diseases caused by changes in the quantitative or qualitative composition of red blood cells.
Polycythemia and anemia
As mentioned above, with a confirmed reduction in blood cells, doctors diagnose anemia. The disease leads to myocardial overload, and, accordingly, increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.
Polycythemia is a benign tumor process of the hematopoietic system, which, unlike anemia, is characterized by increased levels of red blood cells.Complications of the disease are circulatory disorders, the formation of blood clots in the arteries, which in severe cases lead to the emergence of emboli (the sudden formation of an airlock in the vessel due to its blockage by a blood clot).
Increasing the number of white blood cells in the absence of any obvious inflammatory process in the body is a sign of oncology. Most often, among the malignant forms of the disease is leukemia and leukemia. But it is important to bear in mind that according to blood tests for blood diseases in adults or children, it is not always possible to obtain reliable results. The development of oncology in some cases is also indicated by a decrease in the level of white blood cells. It is caused by the development of the tumor process and weakening of the immune system.
Causes of thrombosis
A separate group includes diseases associated with changes in platelet count. Thus, the reduced value of this indicator indicates thrombocytopenia. For this pathological condition is characterized by increased bleeding, poor blood clotting. When thrombocytopenia stop the bleeding without qualified medical care is almost impossible.Reduced platelet count increases the risk of stroke. At the same time, their high content hinders the full operation of the bone marrow stem cells. Such a violation can lead to serious consequences.
What is hemophilia?
This disease is associated with the quality of blood plasma. Hemophilia is characterized by non-coagulability and an increased tendency to bleed. Another pathological condition is agammaglobulinemia. This is a failure in the production of antibodies and their significant deficiency in plasma.
Blood Coagulation Tests
This is a natural biological property of human fluidic tissue. The process of clotting is accompanied by the formation of a special protein structure - fibrin. This substance is responsible for the formation of blood clots in the circulatory system.
If you suspect the slightest bleeding disorders, the doctor recommends a coagulogram. They take this blood test for liver diseases, hemophilia and pathologies such as varicose veins in the legs, thrombophlebitis, diseases of the cardiovascular system, including arterial hypertension.The results of coagulation are indispensable in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and comprehensive examination of pregnant women. A patient undergoing therapy with indirect anticoagulants will also have to undergo a blood test several times. First of all, it is necessary to monitor the dynamics of recovery after treatment with drugs that reduce blood clotting and prevent the formation of thrombotic plaques.
In addition, the coagulogram should be given to patients who are assigned to surgical intervention. This analysis allows you to determine:
- the level of prothrombin and antithrombin (protein, thanks to which the resorption of forming blood clots is ensured);
- the period during which stops bleeding after puncture of the skin;
- fibrinogen concentration;
- the time it takes to complete the collapse.
In the predominant number of cases, functional failures of the body, which directly or indirectly adversely affect the organs and the blood-forming system, become the causes of disorders in the blood.Sometimes provoke the development of pathology can various damage to the bone marrow. Chronic and acute diseases can also affect the functioning of the hematopoietic system. It is impossible to independently determine what analysis is needed if a blood disease is suspected; a hematologist or general practitioner will prescribe an examination. As a rule, for accurate diagnosis it is necessary to go through several research procedures.