Cotton fabric: history, properties and types of weaves
The textile industry has several directions in the manufacture of various types of fabrics, which are natural, artificial and synthetic. The largest share in the composition of manufactured products is cotton fabric. It belongs to natural types of fabrics and is made of vegetable fibers.
The history of distribution in Europe
The exact time of the beginning of using cotton for making fabrics in a person’s life cannot be said by anyone. Cotton came to Europe with other wonders, which were delivered by Arab trade caravans. And after its discovery by Columbus in the Bahamas at the end of the 15th century and at the beginning of the next century, cotton became one of the most popular types of raw materials for the production of matter. But it was a handicraft industry, which provided the needs of only small factories. The fabrication of large-scale fabrics began only in 1730 after the invention of the cotton gin Ally Whitney,which allowed to replace the manual separation of fibers on the mechanized. This gave impetus to the very weaving production of such matter and an increase in the volume of crop cultivation in many countries. Cotton fabric supplemented and partially replaced wool and silk in everyday life of Europeans.
Properties of natural cotton fabrics
Modern industry produces such a variety of articles and types of such matter that it can rightly be called the most popular products available to the majority of the population. Cotton fabric in its properties has a high hygroscopicity, hygiene and durability. Due to this, its use extends not only to the manufacture of clothing and household items - it is used for medical and technical purposes (gauze, bandages). The use of threads from only one natural fiber, or a combination with synthetic or artificial, gives the fabric an attractive appearance, expands the palette of shades and methods of drawing drawings. Things made of cotton are comfortable to wear, pleasant to the touch of the skin.In the summer and winter, they let her breathe, keeping her body temperature warm. Although the cotton fabric is easily ironed, it is wrinkled quickly in the process of wearing. This disadvantage is eliminated by adding other fibers.
Types of weaving
There are several types and methods of joining threads in the production of materials. They are:
- finely shaped;
Simple weaves, in turn, are divided into linen, twill, satin and satin. Depending on how the threads of the fabric are intertwined with each other, different types of materials are obtained in terms of quality, properties and application. Linen connection has the same pattern on the front side and inside out. According to this principle, a thin cotton fabric is produced - batiste. The raw material for the manufacture of yarn is fine-fiber cotton. In the creation of satin and satin weave laid the use of four weft threads and one warp thread. The twill fabric has thread directions from top to right, bottom to left. Weaving is made at an angle, it gives the fabric a greater softness in comparison with linen.The use of different types of weave in a combined form allows you to create the necessary pattern on the surface of matter. Thanks to the combination of threads, gabardine looks like a striped cotton fabric, the veil is transparent, waffle or terry cloth ideal for sewing towels. Thanks to cotton, we have the necessary, beautiful and useful things.