Dembo Rubinstein's Methodology: A Study of Self-Evaluation
Some perform excellently before the public, othersFeel free to ask about the price of the goods in the store. Some people suffer humiliation in order to be accepted into the circle of communication, others carry an invisible crown on their own and do not allow anyone close to themselves. What is the reason for this behavior of people? There is one personal characteristic that unites all the above models of human behavior - it's self-esteem.
What is a person's self-esteem?
We often hear such a thing as "self-esteem".It is used not only by professional psychologists, teachers or doctors, we can also hear about this personal characteristic in everyday communication. What is it? Self-esteem refers to a person's ideas of his own importance and value to others, and also an assessment of his own shortcomings and positive qualities, emotions, feelings by the person himself.
When does it begin to form?
Self-esteem can not be formed without having moreone personal property - self-consciousness. It occurs in childhood, until about 3 years, when the child realizes his autonomy from the mother, identifies himself with a certain gender and begins to manifest himself as a person (the so-called "seven-star crisis" of this age). When the child grows up, he has the opportunity at an elementary level to evaluate himself and analyze the attitude of others around him. At this age, we can talk about the beginnings of self-esteem, as it is formed for a long time and stays in dynamics throughout life.
Types of self-evaluation
Specialists distinguish several types of self-esteem,which can be investigated with the help of psychological tools (for example, the Budassey methodology of the I-concept study, or the Dembo-Rubinstein technique). Self-evaluation consists of self-conceptions of the self and the ideal.
There are different relationships between these two personality structures ("I-real", "I-ideal"). Depending on the quality of this relationship, a person's self-esteem changes.
- Undervalued self-esteem- a big difference between the ideas of who I really am and how I should ideally be. Insecurity in itself, developing in this case, is seen in all human activities.
- Adequate self-esteem- a normal relationship between "I-real" and "I-ideal." The person behaves adequately to the situation.
- Overstated- there is practically no difference between the two above-mentioned personality structures. A person is inclined to consider himself, if not an ideal, then very close to him.
Dembo-Rubinstein's methodology - self-evaluation study, description
It is very important for the individual to have an adequateself-esteem, because otherwise there are problems in communication, professional activities, kinship ties and so on. It is necessary to pay attention in a timely manner to self-evaluation of a person, in order to avoid mistakes in her social adaptation.
The Dembo-Rubinshtein technique makes it possible to determine,what kind of self-esteem a person has. This happens with the help of test marks on certain scales. A form is given to the person, in which the instruction and the basic task are written. To determine the level of self-assessment, the classical Dembo-Rubinstein methodology is used.
Modification of the parishioners of this technique is used inthe last time in various educational institutions and at work. The modified methodology of AM Prikhozhan contains 7 scales (in contrast to the 4 original ones). The author of the modification added such scales as "the ability to do something with one's own hands", "appearance", "recognition of peers", and also changed the scale of "happiness" to "self-confidence."
Instructions for the study
A person can understand what needs to be done intest by reading the instructions. It says that everyone has the opportunity to assess their abilities, traits, opportunities and so on. Its assessment can be expressed on a segment from which one low points begin at one end, at the other end - a maximum of 10 points. It is necessary to mark on each scale with a dash "-" the level at which the development of this quality or property is now. Then it is necessary to mark on these scales the cross "x" at the level at which the tested person can feel content with himself or with pride.
Scales in the test
The Dembo-Rubinstein methodology includes the following scales:
- ability and mind of a person;
- his character;
- whether he enjoys authority among peers;
- the ability to do something on their own, with their own hands;
- a person's appearance.
The method is suitable for individual andfrontal research. When working with a group, it is necessary to check everyone how he filled the first training scale - "health". Modification of the Dembo-Rubinshtein technique involves the time required to complete a test task from 10 to 12 minutes.
Analysis of results
When processing and analyzing the results, the first scaleis not taken into account, since this is not a personal characteristic. The length of each scale should be exactly equal to 100 mm, then each marked cross and dash will have a quantitative characteristic (for example, 48 mm - 48 points).
The Dembo-Rubinshtein technique allows us to identifyonly the level of self-esteem, but also the level of personal aspirations. This indicator is determined when measuring the score from "0" to "x". Accordingly, the level of self-assessment on a specific scale can be measured from "0" to "-".
Next, calculate the distance from "x" to"-". If there is a situation in which the level of claims is lower than personal self-esteem, scores are expressed in negative numbers. Then the score is calculated and the self-esteem is determined. The Dembo-Rubinstein method is easy to process, so it is often used. But experts almost always use it in the modification of the Parishioners.
Decoding of indicators
To determine the level of the twopersonality characteristics the total score of the corresponding indicators of all scales (except the first) is counted. Dembo-Rubinstein's methodology as precisely as possible helps a person to understand how he values himself.
Indicators of the level of claims
- Adequate - 75-89 points.A person realistically assesses their capabilities.
- High - 90-100 points.Unrealistic attitude to their capabilities, lack of self-criticism.
- Low - less than 60 points.Underestimated level of claims. A person can not develop normally. He has no desire to achieve something, because he is sure that this is obviously a losing option.
Level of self-assessment
- Adequate - 45-74 points.Realistic self-assessment according to those indicated in the methodology and other parameters.
- Overstated - 75-100 points.There are some problems in the formation ofpersonal qualities. Perhaps an adult or a child can not correctly assess their work activity (its results), communication. There is a phenomenon such as "closeness for experience," that is, a person is insensitive to remarks, advice and estimates of people.
- Underestimated - less than 45 points.A person has big problems in shapingpersonal well-being, this is shown by the Dembo-Rubinstein technique. Self-esteem is too low can be the result of two psychological problems: there is really a lack of self-confidence and "protective" uncertainty. The second phenomenon is observed if the person himself imposes this "underestimation" himself, so as not to strain decisions and avoid responsibility.