Dislocation of the shoulder: types, causes, symptoms, treatment
The shoulder joint - due to its structure - can perform the greatest amount of movement. But if there is a displacement of the articular endings, characterized by release from the site of attachment of the head of the humerus, dislocation of the shoulder occurs. As a result, contact between the contacting surfaces is lost, and joint dysfunction occurs.
Dislocated shoulder: species
Dislocations distinguish congenital and acquired. The latter are divided into habitual and traumatic. The habitual dislocation of the shoulder is the one that can be triggered by even the slightest exertion (due to the instability of the joint). Damage to the joint capsule and other factors may contribute to its development. Traumatic dislocations are more common, they can be accompanied by complications, such as soft tissue injuries, neurovascular bundle. Depending on the location, there are dislocations: front, bottom, rear. The most common is the anterior dislocation of the shoulder, with it the head of the humerus moves forward and shifts under the coracoid process.If it moves to the clavicle, diagnose subclavian dislocation. When falling on the arm extended forward, the head of the humerus can be detached in the back section. In this case, talking about back dislocation, but such injuries are rare. Even less often, a lower shoulder dislocation occurs, in which the displacement of the bone head occurs downwards. The peculiarity consists in the fact that after such a traumatizing a person cannot lower his hand down, he has to hold it above his head.
Dislocated shoulder: causes
One of the most common causes of dislocation is a force on the joint, at which it is turned out or twisted, which disrupts the range of motion. An injury can also result from joint hypermobility, that is, a condition in which excessive motor activity occurs in a joint. In addition, articular dysplasia is a factor contributing to shoulder dislocation. In some people this hollow is not deep enough, so they are more prone to dislocations. A cavity may be unnecessarily deflected forward or backward, which is also a risk factor. Sometimes there is hypoplasia of the articular cavity, when its lower part is not completely formed.When making monotonous movements, during which the capsule of the joint and ligament repeatedly stretch, the threat of dislocation also appears. This is mainly characteristic of athletes involved in handball, tennis, swimming, volleyball, etc., that is, such sports where it is necessary to make movements with arms on a large scale, because of which the ligament system of the shoulder is stretched.
Dislocated shoulder: symptoms
The main symptoms are pain and swelling. Due to the fact that the head of the humerus of the joint comes out, there is a restriction of movement. In addition, the shoulder joint changes in appearance, the roundness of its shape is disturbed, and the former smoothness is absent. If a blood vessel is damaged or a nerve is pinched during injury, stabbing pains, bruises, numbness of the arm, and an impaired sensitivity of the forearm, shoulder, and hand may occur.
Dislocated shoulder: treatment
The method of treatment includes three stages: reduction of the shoulder, the stage of immobilization and the process during which the functions of the shoulder are restored. Along with this, anesthetic therapy is carried out by taking certain medications and applying cold compresses.