Equipment and lay-out of workplaces
The layout of the workplace is an important stepat arrangement of industrial premises, offices, offices. The essence of this procedure is the proper placement of equipment, items needed in the workplace.
General planning is divided into two stages: external and internal. The first includes all the work to ensure the necessary distance between objects, workplaces, transport routes, etc. The second is the rational placement of equipment directly on the individual workplace.
The main requirements that are imposed on the internal planning are:
- grouping of items, for example, cold press stamps are located in one part of the shop, and hot - in the opposite;
- the location of objects depending on the order of technological operations (it is inappropriate, for example, to install the investment system in front of the conveyor).
Requirements for workplace planning (internal) are as follows:
- the most optimal arrangement of objects (improvised), which minimizes the physical movements of the employee;
- ensuring the transfer of improvised funds in one direction (more often, to themselves).
Required equipment for workplaces at enterprises
The equipment of the whole workplace includes absolutely all the equipment that is necessary for carrying out a particular process.
The requirements that are imposed on the rig are as follows:
- ensuring the continuity of the operation;
- reduction of labor costs of the employee;
- safety of use;
At each enterprise, the main and auxiliary (auxiliary) equipment is used.
The layout and equipment of workplaces, for example, in a metal manufacturing plant, includes the following elements:
- devices for manufacturing (basic equipment): various machines, packaging lines, etc .;
- auxiliary equipment: delivery (conveyors), loaders / unloaders, technical control.
An important factor in the planning of production is the correct distribution of all the necessary accompanying aggregates. These include:
- equipment of warehouses and ancillary facilities;
- provision of required furniture;
- organization of places for storage of documentation;
- installation of communication equipment, lighting;
- the organization of measures for labor protection (it is necessary to designate dangerous places and sites, to open access to safety instructions for employees).
For example, the layout of the seller's workplace must meet the following requirements:
- area (length and depth of the counter) are calculated depending on the purpose of the store and the number of employees;
- storage area of the goods (warehouse, refrigerator) should provide unhindered access to the right product, and also comply with sanitary standards;
- equipment (scales, cash register, computer, etc.) is located in the most convenient place.
Mechanical production: how to properly organize a workshop?
Manufacture and processing of productsof metal must meet a number of specific requirements. The number of the latter depends on the type of production (large-, medium- and small-batch), type of work (manufacturing or processing).
The organization of the turner's workplace and itsplanning should first of all ensure the rational use of the area of the workshop, the convenient installation of equipment, the required temperature, accessibility to frequently used tools.
The temperature of the shop should not exceed the standard: in most cases 16aboutFROM). Humidity and lighting should also create a comfortable working environment.
Depending on the type of workpieces to be processed,The shelves are located near the machine. Their size is selected taking into account the dimensions of the blanks. Various technical documentation, for example, drawings, manuals, instructions, tools, are also within walking distance on the nightstands.
Premises for office use: what are the features?
An employee of any kind must knowtheir duties and fulfill them. Since all the requirements for them are developed by a special department, the latter must also be equipped with everything necessary.
The planning of the manager's workplace takes into accounttwo working zones: normal and maximum. In the first case, the work is done manually (more often, in the sitting position). The normal zone should be equipped with improvised means, the main objects of labor, which are used in the first place.
Maximum work involves the use of the entire body of the body. In this zone there are objects of labor, which are used less often.
In a convenient location there should be communication facilities,various computer and computer equipment, furniture, etc. At the same time, one should not forget about the compactness and the part of the premises specially allocated for this or that equipment.
Requirements for the organization of modern production
The layout of the modern workplacethe managerial level is somewhat different from the usual one. In most cases, the modern management process is partially or fully automated. To such places special requirements are made.
In general, the modern place with the abovecontrol are equipped with whole software packages, technical means, etc. The workstation provides some operations in an autonomous mode.
The development of such a project takes into account the following features:
- Reliability of technology. Ideally, the supervisor only observes the automatic execution of the work.
- In the event of a malfunction of the equipment, the management team alone, in manual mode, performs the necessary work. This means that processes and technologies should not be too complicated to understand.
- The enterprise must have a repair team.
Requirements for a permanent workplace
Equipment, planning of workplaces implies the availability of necessary equipment. This is the main and auxiliary.
Equipment of the first type, most often stationary (immovable). The second group includes:
- devices for movement: hoists, roller tables, carts;
- storage equipment, for example, cold stores, warehouses, shelves, stands.
The main equipment is selected in accordancewith technical documentation, which operates on the territory of the country. Auxiliary and organizational techniques are designed directly for a specific production.
Activities for the certification of work areas
Similar activities are conducted to study the layout of the workplace and its evaluation. Each place should be designed in accordance with current regulations and requirements.
When assessing the work area, determine:
- working conditions;
- different levels of the place (economic, organizational);
- observance of safety measures.
In the measurement of certain factors, sanitary stations, fire inspectors, etc. participate. A general evaluation is carried out by a commission whose composition is determined directly at the enterprise.
Important!Absolutely all places are subject to certification. When accounting for the total number of workplaces, the temporarily unused ones are also taken into account.
Definition of working conditions
The general condition of existing conditions is determined by:
- current state regulatory documentation;
- the severity of work;
- activity and variety of work performed;
- presence at employees of necessary accessories and means for health protection.
Upon completion of the inspection, the workplace layout and working conditions are evaluated. The result of the evaluation is expressed as follows:
- Attestation passed. If all criteria are acceptable, such a workplace has been tested.
- Need to be refined. If there are some violations, but they can be improved - this workplace will be tested in the future.
- Attestation failed. This means that the shortcomings are unrecoverable, and the place can not be tested.
What are the requirements for the organization of work?
The layout and organization of the workplace must meet the following requirements:
- expediency of placement of equipment and auxiliary materials;
- ensuring optimal working conditions;
- rational distribution of space;
- ensuring the free movement of the employee.
In general, the set of activities is aimed atproviding the most comfortable and safe working conditions in the workplace. Regular inspection of the workplace reduces the frequency of work-related injuries and accidents. Instructions that are developed depending on the characteristics of working conditions are also an important component in the planning of the workplace.
With requirements, and also normative documentscan be found in special firms for the design of production. Due to the frequent modernization of the equipment, the documentation is also changing. Therefore, the manager should regularly study the new legislation, as well as maintain the state of jobs at the appropriate level.