Equivalent vocabulary and translation problems
The translation of texts plays an invaluable role in the development of mankind. With its help, people learn about the culture of other countries, join the international heritage, betray scientific and any other knowledge.
The main thing in the process of translating texts is,naturally, translator. His role is significant. That's why the people of this profession are very high demands. A good interpreter should not only perfectly master all the layers of the language. He must know the peculiarities of the national culture of the country, its geography, history, economy, politics. Without knowing these features of the country from whose language the translation is being prepared, it is impossible to accurately and correctly convey the nuances of the text.
The translation is especially difficultequivalent words, i.e. those language units that do not have correspondence in other languages. The definition that Vereshchagin and Kostomarov gave to this concept says that the equivalent vocabulary is words whose meaning can not be compared with the lexical concepts present in other languages.
Naturally, first of all, words refer to the given layer, which denote specific concepts, concepts that are absent in other countries or other peoples, realities and phenomena.
The realities include everyday objects, rituals,processes that are absent from other peoples. The words "sakura", "satsivi", "perestroika" and there are examples of that layer of language that experts call "nonequivalent lexicon".
The concept also includes historicisms, words that have lost their relevance, because the objects or phenomena that they called have disappeared. These include, for example, "Armenian", "stagecoach", "scimitar", etc.
How do you solve the lexical problems of translation? There are several ways to solve the problem.
- Transcription or recording of foreign words usingthe prevailing spelling of the target language. It is an option to include the words of one language in another with the maximum possible preservation of their sound image.
- Transliteration or the exact transfer of signs (orsystem of signs) of one letter with the help of another. In this case, a transliteration "sign in sign" is possible, the transfer of the whole system of signs by one character or vice versa. Sometimes a whole system of symbols of the successor language is required to transmit one sequence of written characters.
- Hypo-hyperonimic translation, i.e. translation of the equivalent vocabulary, taking into account the species and generic relations of words. Simply put, this kind of translation consists in the selection of the nearest, albeit incomplete in meaning equivalent concept, a paraphrase. Perifraz can be descriptive, explicative, descriptive, and squashed.
Equivalent lexicon is quickly borrowedother languages, because otherwise it is difficult to convey the characteristics of another's culture. This refers to the Russian "Perestroika", the English "Parliament", the Ukrainian "villain".
But the equivalent vocabulary is not onlyrealities and historicisms. Some words in different languages are different in their semantic volume, which must be taken into account when translating. So, for example, in English the word "girl" means both "girl" and "girl". It is clear that in Russian these concepts have different semantics.
Difficulties of translation very often cause an evaluationcomponent of the meaning of a word. So, if the Russian "sun" has a neutral emotional connotation, then the Tajik "oftob", due to the hot climate, bears a negative component, close in meaning to the concepts "scorching", "burning".
One of the greatest difficulties is the translationphraseological units. Idiomatic expressions evolved under the influence of value orientations, worldviews, cultural traditions of native speakers. That is why the translator should know perfectly well not only the figurative semantics of the chosen language, but also the history, the culture of the people as a whole.