Errors punctuation: examples. Checking and correcting punctuation errors
Many students, students and even adultsseek to become literate. To see the error on the letter (punctuation, spelling, grammar) can be learned at any age. For this it is necessary to follow certain rules of the Russian language, to observe them in oral and written speech.
Classification of errors in the Russian language
Errors allowed in a speech or a letter are notare the same in nature. Speech, grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors have fundamental differences. Speech and grammatical errors are connected to a greater extent with the content and meaning of certain words. Orthographic and punctuation errors are associated with the external expression of these words.A spelling mistake can be seen in a word,standing separately, withdrawn from the context. The remaining errors: punctuation, speech, grammatical - can not be detected without context. For example, a spelling mistake in a wordpraznikseen immediately (unpronounceable consonant, correctcelebration). Speech error in the phraseThe baby needs mother careis visible only in context (it is better to use the wordcare, since the wordcarehas homonyms). The grammatical error can only be seen in the sentence, for example,The room was wide and bright(wide and bright,wide and light). Punctuation errors can not be detected without reliance on a sentence or text. For example,To love: to live not only for oneself- punctuation error when selecting a punctuation mark between the subject and the predicate (correct:To love - to live not only for oneself).
A punctuation is a set of rules for the correctpunctuation on a letter. The system of these signs is also called punctuation. Ten characters of punctuation are used in Russian. Three of them are signs of completion of thought: a dot, a question mark, an exclamation mark - they stand at the end of the sentence. One is the sign of incompleteness of thought-an ellipsis that can be placed in any part of the sentence. Signs of incompleteness of the statement are a comma, a dash, a colon, a semicolon. They stand in the middle of the sentence. There are double signs in Russian - these are brackets and quotation marks. Additional information is indicated in parentheses. Quotations include names and a direct speech. In other languages, there are some other signs. For example, an inverted question mark in Spanish or single quotes in English.
Both a punctuation mark and a space are calledpunctogram. Words in the modern Russian sentence should be separated from each other by spaces, between them must be the necessary punctuation marks. For example,The sun, waves,gulls - everything is on the seaside resorts. Let's compare,Solntsezemorechaykiallest of the maritime resorts- turned out to be difficult to read a number of Russian letters. Thus, punctuation and spaces are used to separate words and sentences from each other.
Punctograms in different languages
There are languages (for example, Chinese, Japanese), in which there are no spaces.The text at first glance looks unreadable, but,if you look closely, there are a lot of punctuation marks in it that serve to separate the test into parts, and also to indicate peculiarities peculiar to these languages (longitude, short, etc.). If you turn to the history of the Russian language, then in the Old Slavonic language texts were written without punctuation marks and spaces. Sentences were rarely separated by dots. Capital letters were written only at the beginning of a new chapter. But there was more in it than in the modern Russian language, diacritical signs: supra- and subscript.
Punctuation as a science is important for native speakers. After all, the correct formulation of punctuation marks or their absence depends on the understanding of the written text. For example, offerYou can not fight friends -definitely requires a punctuation mark for its adequate understanding. Here from the correct statement with a comma:Be friends, you can not fight- depends on how the proposal is read and information is understood. Invalid punctuation is a punctuation error.A place where a specific punctuation mark is required, but is different or absent at all, is called a punctuation error. For example,The sun warming its rays stood high- this is the sentence where the mistake was made. Correction of punctuation errors is based on knowledge of punctuation rules. In this situation, the cases of isolation of participial turnovers: the participial turnover, which is after the word being defined, is separated by commas:The sun, warming its fields, stood high.Here, from the correct identification of participial turnover, understanding of the meaning of the whole sentence depends.
Causes of punctuation errors
Grammatical and punctuation mistakes more often than others, are found in the work of students, especially high school students.This is primarily due to the fact that in seniorclasses the syntax is complicated. When studying simple complicated and complex sentences, material is introduced on the correct arrangement of punctuation marks, which it is difficult to overpower for a high school student. An important factor in the formation of gaps in knowledge of punctuation is the reduction of hours allocated for spelling. Every year, the percentage of pupils with fewer grades increases. As a result, there are difficulties in correctly perceiving and reading the text. The prevention and verification of punctuation errors should be carried out directly during the writing process. Otherwise there will be no meaningful division of the text into fragments. It is important to put all the punctuation marks at the time of writing, and not after writing the text.
Punctuation in a simple sentence
In a simple sentence, that is, in a sentence where one grammatical basis, if it is not complicated, there are no punctuation marks other than the final and dashes. For example,The main thing is to be young at heart. Where does the cheetah live? Spring is a wonderful time of the year!If a simple sentence is complicated by something, then commas are placed in it, sometimes a dash and a colon. A simple sentence can be complicated by:
- Homogeneous terms:The sea splashed and played. In the basket were oyster mushrooms, mushrooms, chanterelles.
- Separate members:A vase full of flowers stood on the table. His sister, Elena Lvovna, works on television.
- Appeals:Lisa, speak louder. About the sea, you are beautiful!
- Introductory words and sentences:Today, perhaps, there will be clear weather. According to the lawyer, the case must continue.
In a simple complicated sentence, punctuation errors, examples of which are given below, are often encountered.Punctuation mistakes in a simple complicated sentence
|Proposal with an error||Rule||Corrected proposal|
|Blossomed jasmines blossomed on the edge of the forest.||The participial turn is separated in position after the main word||On the edge of the forest, hidden among the trees, jasmine blossomed.|
|Everything suited the princess's house a park pond.||In cases where the generalizing word is in front of a number of homogeneous terms, a colon is placed after the general word.||Everything suited the princess: the house, the park, the pond.|
Punctuation in a complex sentence
In a complex sentence, you can find any signspunctuation. In writing a complex sentence, punctuation errors are often allowed. Probably, this is due to difficulties in the perception of long syntactic constructions. The main thing that needs to be understood is that punctuation marks should be placed between parts of a complex sentence. If this is a compound sentence, then the comma is put before the co-authoring union:She was bored, and he was talking.If the parts of such a sentence have a common term, a comma is not required:A whole month she missed and he missed(the general term -whole month). In a complex sentence, a comma is inserted at the junction of the subordinate parts and the main one:The guys went fishing when the dawn was coming.
Citation and direct speech
Citation and direct speech are similar in that they use quotation marks. The rules for setting quotation marks are also similar. Quotations are placed in quotation marks and direct speech too.If the words of the author are before the quote / direct speech, then a colon is put after them:The author says: "There is no better friend than conscience". She said: "I'll go to the park after work."If the author's words follow the quotation / direct speech, then a comma and a dash are placed before them:"There is no better friend than conscience," - says the author. "I'll go to the park after work," she said.The quote can only be cited with reference to the source:"Because I tapped with sorrow sad his drunk"(AA Akhmatova). Direct speech in the dialog can be formatted as individual replicas without quotes. Then before the statement, which is drawn from a new line, is dashed:
- Good afternoon!
- Kind! How can I help you?
- I'm interested in the works of the artists of the Wanderers.