Folk instruments. Russian folk instruments. Russian folk musical instruments
The first Russian folk musical instruments arose long ago, back in time immemorial. About what our forefathers played, you can learn from paintings, hand-written pamphlets and lubok.
A number of instruments were found inthe time of excavation, and now no one can doubt that they really were common in Russia. Our ancestors could not live without music. Very many of them were able to independently manufacture the simplest tools, which were then inherited. In the evenings people gathered and played, resting from the day's work.
Let's take a closer look at Russian folk musical instruments. At least a general idea about them should be for every resident of our country.
This is a tool with strings. He first appeared in Russia.Gusli - the oldest string instrument fromall who have come down to us. They are helmet-shaped and pterygoid. The latter were made in the form of a triangle, the minimum number of strings they have - 5, and the maximum - 14. The technique of playing on pterygoal (ringing) gushes is such that a person touches all the strings with his right hand at once. And the left at this time neutralizes unnecessary sounds. As for the helmet-shaped (also called psalter-like), the person plays them with both hands at once. These folk instruments are difficult to master, but they are worth it.
Consider them. They were common not only in antiquity, but also in the twentieth century, often played by representatives of the clergy.These psaltery were similar to psalter-like, butorder is better. The basis of this tool was a rectangular box equipped with a lid. On one side of it several voices (special oval holes) were cut out, then a pair of wooden chips joined it. In one of them were screwed metal pegs, they were wound strings of the same material. The other sliver served as a quail. There is no need for special explanations, the name speaks for itself. Strings were fixed on it. This instrument was inherent in the piano system. It is interesting that strings similar to dark keys were located below those corresponding to white keys. To play the clavier-like harp, one had to know the notes. Otherwise, it would not be a normal melody. Folk instruments, the pictures of which you see in front of you, enchant everyone who hears them.
It is impossible not to mention the gusli, by sightreminiscent of the kantele - a tool hailing from Finland. Most likely, they were inspired by the traditions of this country. Unfortunately, in the twentieth century such gusli were completely forgotten.
Now you know the most famous ancient folk stringed instruments.
Many folk musicians play it today. Balalaika is a plucked instrument equipped with three strings.Its dimensions are very different: there are models whose size reaches 600 mm, but there are also species with a length of 1.7 meters. In the first case we are talking about the so-called primitive, and in the second case, the balalaika-double bass. This tool has a slightly curved body made of wood, but in the 18th and 19th centuries oval ones were also encountered. If you ask any foreigner what Russia is associated with, the balalaika will surely come to him. Harmon and zhaleyka are also symbols of our country, however less popular.
Features of sound
The sound of the balalaika is loud, but gentle. The most common tricks of the game are single and double pizzicato. Not the last place is occupied also by clattering, fractions, vibrato, tremolo. Folk instruments, including balalaika, sound rather soft, although sonorous. Melodies are very emotional and often sad.
Balalaika Double Bass
Previously, this tool did not have an established, ubiquitous system.Each musician tuned it according totheir preferences, mood of played melodies and local customs. However, in the XIX century V. Andreev radically changed this situation, after which the balalaika became an indispensable attribute of many concerts. People's instruments, whose photos you see, are used by many musicians today in their speeches.
Academic and People's Order
The structure, created by Andreev, won a hugepopularity among performers traveling around the country. He began to be called academic. Besides him, there is also the so-called people's order. In this case, it is easier to take triads, and the difficulty is that it is difficult to use open strings. In addition to all of the above, there are local ways of setting up a balalaika. There are twenty of them.
You can say that the balalaika is prettypopular folk instrument. Many learn to play it in music schools in our country, as well as in Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus. Folk instruments now attract a lot of young people, and it pleases.
On the question of when the balalaika appeared, there is nounambiguous answer - there are many versions. And it gained popularity in the XVII century. It is not excluded that its ancestor is the Kazakh dombra. The ancient balalaika was a rather long instrument, the body length of which was about 27 cm. And its width reached 18 cm. Also, the instrument was notable for its rather oblong neck.
Modifying the Instrument
The balalaikas, which are played today, externallydiffer from the ancients. Modified instrument musician V. Andreev, together with S. Nalimov, F. Paserbsky, and V. Ivanov. These people decided that the deck should be made from spruce, and the back side - from beech. In addition, Andreev suggested making the instrument a little shorter, up to 700 mm. A remarkable man F. Paserbsky invented a whole group of balalaikas: I will accept, tenor, double bass, piccolo, viola, bass. Today, without them it is impossible to imagine a traditional Russian orchestra. After some time, this man, who produced many Russian folk instruments, received a patent for them.
Balalaika can be used not only in orchestras, but also often played on it solo.
It is a reed instrument that belongs to the key-pneumatic family.Harmony should not be confused with the accordion and accordion.
This tool consists of two half-on which there are panels with keys and buttons. The left side is necessary for accompaniment: if you hold down one key, you will hear a bass or a whole chord, and the right one is for playing. In the middle there is a fur compartment for pumping oxygen to the sound strips of the accordion.
Than this instrument differs from an accordion or accordion:
- On a standard harmony, a musician usually derives exclusively diatonic sounds, in some cases chromatic ones are added;
- fewer octaves;
Who invented this tool?
There is no exact information about where it was manufacturedthe first accordion. According to one version, it was created in Germany, in the XIX century. Its inventor is FK Bushman. But there are other versions. In Germany, there is an opinion that the accordion was created in Russia, and if you believe the scientist Mirek, the first such instrument was made in the northern capital in 1783, it was created by Frantisek Kirshnik, an organ master from the Czech Republic. This man came up with an original way to produce sound - through the iron tongue, coming in motion from the effects of oxygen. Since the end of the XIX century, the accordion is considered a Tatar folk instrument. There are other, no less interesting versions.
These folk instruments, circulated inRussia, are divided into two types according to the method of obtaining sound. The first category includes harmonies, in which, during the movement of the bellows, all keys, when pressed, produce sounds of equal height. Such tools are quite popular. And the second category includes harmonies, in which the pitch of the sound depends on the direction in which the fur moves. The first type includes tools "chrome" (the most popular today), "Russian wreath", as well as "livenka." And "Talyanka", "Tula", "Cherepanka" and "Vyatka" belong to the second category. You can classify the accordion by the form of the right keyboard, and more specifically, by the number of keys. To date, wide popularity was gained by the "chrome", which has two rows of buttons, but there are instruments with three, and in some cases there is only one row. Now you understand that there are many harmonies and they are all different.
- Tools with one row of buttons: "Tula", "Vyatka", "Livenskaya", "Talyanka". The last name is formed from the "Italian", on the right there are 12/15 keys, and on the left - 3.
- Tools with two rows of buttons: "chrome", "Russian wreath".
- Harmony is automatic.
Our ancestors played on them. The minimum number of spoons per musician is three, the maximum is five.These Russian folk instruments can bedifferent sizes. When the spoons strike each other with a convex part, a characteristic sound is produced. Its height can vary depending on the method of obtaining it.
The musician, as a rule, plays on three spoons: one he holds in his right hand, and the remaining two dispose between the phalanxes of the left. It's easy to imagine. Most performers hit the leg or arm. This is explained by the fact that it is much more convenient. The blows are made by one spoon in two, squeezed in the left hand. In some cases scoops are supplemented with small bells.
Belarusian musicians prefer to play with only two spoons.
It should be noted that scoops widelyPopular among folk performers from the United States and Britain. Jeff Richardson, a member of the English art-rock band Caravan, plays electric spoons during concerts.
Ukrainian folk instruments
A few words should be said about them.In ancient times in Ukraine were commoncymbals, bagpipes, torbans, violins, gusli and other wind, percussion, as well as stringed instruments. In most cases, they were made from various improvised materials (animal bones, leather, wood).
The greatest popularity was received by kobza-bandura, without which it is impossible to imagine the Ukrainian epic.
The gusli also became widely known. This is an ancient instrument with strings, there could be many of them, up to thirty or forty. In addition to Ukrainians and Russians, they were played by Czechs, Byelorussians and many other nationalities. This suggests that the gusli are really magnificent, they should not be forgotten today.
Be sure to listen to folk instruments whose names are now known to you. Fine tunes just will not leave you indifferent.