George Washington: history, biography, photos, policies of the first president of the United States
George Washington was born, a brief biography of which will be presented to your attention in an article on February 22, 1732 in Virginia and became the third child in the family. His father, a wealthy man, a major land surveyor and slave owner, a successful tobacco planter, died when his son was only eleven years old.
Lawrence, half-brother of George and part-time participant in the Anglo-Spanish war, after the death of Augustine Washington became the new head of the family. In those years, slavery was extremely widespread in England: people were bought and sold, and everyone treated it as a common and ordinary phenomenon. But George from his early years had a slightly different opinion on this matter. The boy considered slavery to be an immoral and low phenomenon, but nonetheless recognized that it would take many more years to eliminate this social problem.
Meanwhile, Lawrence became more and more interested in his brother in military affairs, telling stories based on personal experience. George had some success in school, was engaged in self-education, from the rest stood out for his quick wit, curiosity and endurance.
A certain turning point in Washington’s life, after which life was divided into two periods, “before” and “after”, was a meeting with one of the largest landowners and planters of those times - Lord Feafex. The situation to some extent resembles the story from Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby: a windy and inexperienced youth is sent to the right way by the wealthy sailor Dan Cody who has moored to the shore.
Here also, Tefex acts as a mentor. He helps and supports George, fascinates him with land surveying, teaches noble manners, attaches the guy to adult independent life. Having accepted the offer of the lord, the future president of the United States had the opportunity to go to the forest expedition, where he became closely acquainted with the culture of the Indians, their customs and traditions.
After Lawrence’s death, George Vernon’s estate was inherited, but the young man gave up the routine and peaceful life of a planter and land surveyor and decided to try himself in military affairs. Career began at the age of 20 with the rank of major. Washington was assigned to control the selection of young soldiers, to manage their training. Being a responsible person, the major approached work very seriously, did not save his energy, but rather, on the contrary, spent all of them without a trace.
War with france
Relations between France and England have always been mixed. The two major powers throughout their existence acted in their own interests. Especially the situation began to heat up in the late 40s of the 18th century. A military clash was inevitable.
According to the biography, George Washington, by that time already well-read, trained and quite experienced commander, was put in charge of several virgin regiments in 1754. Already at the beginning of the operation, the Washington squad suffered a crushing defeat. The French were far superior in number, which was the main reason for the loss.
However, the young commander was not accused of failure, on the contrary, the government thanked George for his courage, courage and disinterested service to the fatherland.Meanwhile, hostilities slowed down, and over the following year things were quite peaceful: the powers were slow in making decisions.
Return to the front
After the first and immediately unsuccessful operation, Washington "left the battlefield" and returned to his estate, but the peaceful life did not last long. Virginia again encountered the French. The catastrophe was inevitable, and then the British government decided to provide support and allocated two regiments under the command of General Braddock.
The troops were sent to the colony, but the general was not ready to take on the entire burden of responsibility and command everything independently. George arrived on the battlefield as Braddock's assistant. A large battle took place between the two troops near the river Monongahele. Once again, the Washington side suffered a crushing defeat. The general was killed, and his assistant with the remnants of the troops miraculously managed not to be captured.
Another failure had colossal consequences. The future president of the United States decided to leave the battlefield once and for all and end his military career. However, this time, George was not subject to reprimands and accusations.The Virginians loved the commander for his courage, courage and condescension towards his subordinates.
Resignation failed. George Washington, whose photo you have the opportunity to see in the article, took over the command of all the virgin troops and continued to study military affairs. There were still a lot of difficulties ahead. The situation was tense: the Indian tribes were extremely hostile policies. The soldiers were, to put it mildly, untrained. The army consisted of 2,000 people, most of whom were ordinary volunteers, adventurers and profiters. The task was not easy: in the shortest possible time volunteers to form a high-class and well-coordinated team.
Fort Dukens and the end of the war
England again decided to help the Virginia colony and sent three detachments along with General Abercrombie and Brigadier Forbes to help. After the unification of the detachments of Washington and the reinforcements arrived from England, the general army moved to the fortress Dukens, which was the home of the main forces of the French army. The fort was surrendered without a fight: the opponents retreated to the Ohio River, and thus the Anglo-French war was over.
At this time, in 1759, George left the military and ended his career as a commander. Returning to his estate, a twenty-seven-year-old native of Virginia took up farming, and in particular his plantations.
In relation to their slaves, Washington has always stood out with kindness and condescension. Ever since his youthful years, the entire system of slavery seemed degrading, low and contradictory to the essence of man. In conflict situations, George overwhelmingly resorted to persuasion and reasoned exclamations rather than punishment. This behavior was the result of good education and the correct value system.
As for self-development, the young man did not lag behind. Throughout his military career, George read books, studied a variety of combat tactics, subjected himself to physical exertion, in particular, practiced fencing. All this had a tremendous impact on Washington: he was restrained, educated, inquisitive, he was fascinated by the fate of the state, in particular the virgin one.
War for independence
No one will argue that George played a key role in freeing the American colonies from dependence on Britain.The immense contribution has long been appreciated by historians and has no direct analogues.
In the meantime, after the resignation, Washington led a peaceful and measured lifestyle. However, the liberation movement soon touched him. Britain needed funds, for their lack of the state imposed higher taxes on its colonies. This caused widespread discontent.
Being the strongest patriot, George could not help but join the struggle for independence, for him this was a paramount duty. By the decision of Congress, convened on May 10, 1775, 10 formed regiments adjoined the Boston police. In total, the total army of America, commanded by Washington, was raised to a general.
But at the stage of formation certain difficulties were formed. The troops, which had previously been calculated for 20 thousand soldiers, did not exceed 5. This, in turn, significantly reduced the capabilities of the fighters for independence. And so much responsibility placed on Washington has increased.
The war of liberation has begun. In 1776, the troops under the command of George forced the enemies on land to leave Boston, and the naval flotilla to sail far into the open sea. Later, on July 4, 1766, the colonists proclaim their independence.Following the British government sends a letter, which sets out the conditions for the cessation of hostilities. It is worth noting that this was done without proper respect. England still did not recognize the States. The armistice conditions did not satisfy Washington and the colonial government, the war continued.
After the refusal of the States, the war continued in a new vein. The English General Hou soon realized that the colonists were a real and very serious threat. This soon began to affect the situation of military affairs. One of the main periods of the war was the winter of 1777-1778. The soldiers were subjected to enormous physical exertion, coupled with cold and hunger. But the courage of freedom fighters did not allow to give up and retreat. General Washington was declared a dictator and was free to make any decisions on his own.
The final stage
In 1788, the most important battles of Princeton and Trenton took place, of which the colonists were victorious. France decides to recognize the independence of the States and under the contract is obliged to help Washington.
In the meantime, England, who already understood the deplorable state of her condition, decides to make peace with the colonists.And again, the refusal: Congress decided to go to the bitter end and snatch the victory, whatever the cost. And so, in 1781, under the pressure of the troops of George and France, England capitulated and recognized the independence of the United States of America.
England's capitulation and recognition of independence were met with pride and dignity. Of course, at first it was unusual to realize oneself as a full-fledged state, it was necessary to deal with the formation of a strong government, to begin to more actively conduct business of the external economy.
George, after the end of the war, refused all his dictatorial privileges and even the proposal of Congress to reimburse all costs. Washington returned to his native estate and began to manage the household and engage in social activities, namely the development of education and the widespread opening of public schools.
All American people were eternally grateful to George for his invaluable contribution to the war and the conquest of independence. All the highest political bodies saw him as the leader of the newly formed state.
As mentioned above, the former general had immense respect. It was for this reason that in 1787 George was elected a participant in the conference, at which he was to undertake the drafting of a new Constitution of the United States. It is worth noting that the same Constitution, but only with small amendments and changes, is in force in America to this day.
The story of George Washington contains information that in April 1787 he was already unanimously elected, regardless of parties and convictions, as president. This event was extremely predictable, as a candidate more suitable for such an important and responsible position was difficult to find.
President George Washington began his rule measuredly and without any drastic reforms: the country had just won the hardest war, you need to wait until there is peace, which the new president was just trying to maintain. Democracy flourished in the state, they did not impose on citizens, but inculcated the provisions of the Constitution, explained its correctness, fairness and objectivity.
The first president of the United States, George Washington, refused to pay.He needed only funds for the maintenance of the White House. George did not pay attention to nationality and religion in the recruitment of government officials, maintained good relations with Congress, but in no case did not indulge him.
The re-election of the first president, George Washington, passed without any further questions: once again they all voted for one candidate. On the second term of his reign, the president developed several very useful projects for the country, such as a financial development project. George also conducted a very competent foreign policy, maintained peaceful relations with other countries and did not subject his country's independence to doubt.
Here, Washington is not so fast and dynamic as in his military and political career. Having met Marta Kathis in 1759, George took her as his wife. It was his only spouse throughout life.
The first president of America, George Washington, died of an illness, namely pneumonia and strong laryngitis on December 15, 1799. The whole country was in mourning condition. Many buildings were named after Washington and its portrait was installed on a dollar bill.Today, the tomb of George Washington is a place of pilgrimage for thousands of Americans and guests of the country.
Of course, George Washington, whose biography was the subject of our review, is one of the most colorful figures in history.