Great Russian admirals
Russian history knows many examples of selfless service to the Fatherland. Valor and bravery showed our warriors in battles on land and at sea. Today we remember 7 great Russian admirals.
Count Fedor Matveyevich Apraksin was an associate of Peter the Great, so it is not surprising that the future admiral was at the origin of the Russian fleet. He was able to advance, like his two brothers, Peter and Andrew, thanks to the marriage of his sister, who became the second wife of Tsar Fedor Alekseevich. He began the service, like many of Peter's favorites, in the Fun shelves. In 1692, being an archangel voivod, he built a ship, which, to the great joy of the sovereign, became a merchant ship. Before the king's foreign travel in 1697, Apraksin supervised shipbuilding in Voronezh. Three years later he became head of the Admiralty Order and Governor of Azov. In 1708 he received the title of General-Admiral. Under the command of Apraksin, the Russian fleet took part in the Northern War and in the campaign against Persia.For the first time in the history of the Russian fleet in 1714, they won a victory in a naval battle with the Swedes at Cape Gangut.
The right hand of Peter the Great, Alexashka, managed to manifest the passionate qualities of his seething nature in many fields, including in the maritime business. Almost all the instructions and directives that the sovereign sent to the troops passed through the hands of Alexander Danilovich Menshikov. Often, Peter gave any thought, and Menshikov found for her the best incarnation. He had many ranks and regalia, including in 1726 he became a full admiral. On the day of the signing of the Peace of Nishtadt, which ended the long-term war with the Swedes, Menshikov received the rank of vice admiral. After that, he focused on matters of the internal structure of the Russian fleet, and from 1718 he was responsible for the arrangement of all the armed forces of Russia. His great-grandson Alexander Sergeevich Menshikov was also an eminent admiral who commanded the fleet in the Crimean War.
The descendant of the Baltic Germans, Baron Wrangel, is known to the inhabitant primarily as an ardent opponent of selling Alaska to the United States, which is not surprising - Wrangel was the ruler of Russian America for 6 years.During this time, he personally investigated the territory from the Bering Strait to California and founded a meteorological observatory. The rank of rear admiral was awarded to Wrangel in 1836. During his life, the admiral made three round-the-world trips, led an expedition along the northeast coast of Siberia and led a round-the-world voyage to the Meek, actively collaborated with the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg and the Russian Geographical Society.
The famous Russian admiral, perhaps, was able to demonstrate his talent for the first time during the Crimean War, when the Black Sea squadron under his command, in stormy weather, discovered and blocked the main forces of the Turkish fleet in Sinop. During this battle of 1853, the Turkish fleet was destroyed in a matter of hours. According to some historians, it was the “swan song” of the sailing fleet. For this victory, Nakhimov was bestowed by the Highest diploma of His Imperial Majesty Nicholas with the words: "The destruction of the Turkish squadron you decorated the chronicle of the Russian fleet with a new victory." Nakhimov also led the defense of Sevastopol since 1855. After the flooding of the Russian fleet, he took a strategic approach to the defense of the city.The soldiers and sailors who defended the southern part of Sevastopol under his leadership called the admiral "father-benefactor."
Admiral Ushakov commanded the Black Sea Fleet, participated in the Russian-Turkish war, during which he made an enormous contribution to the development of tactical warfare sailing fleet. He received the first award in 1783 for the successful victory over the plague that raged in Kherson. The admiral always tried to approach war as a creative process. For example, he boldly commanded the rebuilding of the fleet, which was already close to the enemy, thereby not allowing the enemy to take the most advantageous positions. His actions were distinguished by extraordinary courage and determination. He boldly put forward his ship to the first positions, choosing one of the most dangerous positions and thus showing an excellent example of courage to his commanders. A sober assessment of the situation, an accurate calculation taking into account all the success factors and a swift attack - this is what allowed the admiral to emerge victorious in many battles. Ushakov can also be rightfully called the founder of the Russian school of tactical combat in naval art.For feats of arms, he was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church.
The ancestors of Admiral Schmidt were discharged in the 17th century by Peter the Great as ship masters from Frankfurt am Main. Schmidt participated in the Crimean War, defended Sevastopol and led the naval operations in the Russian-Turkish war. For his valor in battle, he was awarded the gold sword "For Bravery" and the Order of St. George, IV degree. In 1855 alone, he was wounded four times: in the right side of the head and chest, by a fragment of a bomb in the left side of the forehead, in the index finger of his left hand and in the left leg. By 1898, he became a full admiral and a knight of all orders that existed in Russia at that time. Cape Schmidt on Russian Island is named after him.
In addition to the fact that Admiral Kolchak was the leader of the White movement and the supreme ruler of Russia, he was also an outstanding oceanographer, one of the largest polar researchers, a member of three polar expeditions, and the author of the monograph “What Russia Needs”. The admiral developed the theoretical foundations for the preparation and conduct of joint army operations on land and at sea.In 1908, he lectured at the Maritime Academy. He participated in the Russian-Japanese war, including in the longest of its battles - the defense of Port Arthur. In the First World War he commanded a division of the torpedo ships of the Baltic Fleet, and from the 16-17s - the Black Sea Fleet.