How is space communication

Everyone who watches TV, is aware that without satellites it is impossible to see most of the well-known TV channels (except cable television). Yes, and most families have long owned satellite dishes, which receive signals better than antennas from the last century. Although it seems to us that satellite television has come into our life quite recently, it has existed for quite a long time, and in order for it to function stably, and our televisions show a high-quality picture, there are centers of space communication. Today we will go on a tour to one such center.

Today atkak_eto_sdelanoa special report on how the largest space communications station in Russia is arranged.
The space communications center "Dubna" was commissioned in 1980 and was timed to the 1980 Moscow Olympiad to provide broadcasting of games to the countries of Europe and the Atlantic region. After the Olympic Games, the CSB began to be used as an object of the Kremlin’s governmental ties with the leadership of other countries.

Alexander Petrovich Duka, the director of the Dubna CKS, told us a lot of interesting things about this object. In addition to this station, in Russia there are 4 more similar (5 in total), but not so large. All of them are included in the FSUE "Space Communication". The Space Communications Center provides satellite communications and broadcasting.

In total, the space communications system includes
- 24 receiving and transmitting earth stations of satellite communication with antenna systems from 2.4 to 32 meters. 27 receiving-transmitting earth stations for providing telemetry and telecontrol of spacecraft GP KS, "Eutelsat", "ABS";

- 11 measuring and monitoring ground stations for orbital testing, providing earth stations with access to the space segment and monitoring the loading of satellite transponders of the western arc of the GP KS, "Eutelsat", "ABS";
- 2 independent fiber-optic communication lines with a capacity of 20 Gbit / s (each) operate in redundancy mode of each other and ensure reliable communication of the facility with the Shabolovka Technical Center of the CS CS. They allow us to connect Dubna with practically any telecommunications operator in Moscow;

- 4 high-voltage feeders (2 x 10 kV and 2 x 6 kV) providing redundant power supply of the object.For reliable operation of process equipment, the CCS implemented an uninterrupted power supply system with a total capacity of 700 KVA. In case of force majeure, the power supply of the facility can be provided from an autonomous diesel power station with a total capacity of 1,800 KVA.

As mentioned above, the complex has 24 satellite communication stations with antenna systems from 2.4 to 32 meters, which allow you to organize transmission channels through Russian and foreign communication satellites. Since it is impossible to embrace all antennas from the earth in one frame, I had to steal a photo fromsergeydolyawhere you can see everything in sufficient detail.

GCS also owns the largest orbital constellation in Russia of 13 geostationary satellites operating in the C, Ku, Ka, and L bands. The service areas of the RSC spacecraft located on the orbit arc from 14 ° W.D. up to 145 ° E, cover the whole territory of Russia, countries of the CIS, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, North and South America, Australia.

Broadcasting occurs from the transponder, which is located on the satellite. 40-60 transponders can be located on one satellite.Most of them are located above the equator at an altitude of 35,786 km. Therefore, satellite dishes in the Northern Hemisphere are installed in a southerly direction.

A mirror, which is incorrectly called a dish, collects the signal coming from the satellites, concentrates it and reflects it on the receiver-transmitter, which is located above the plane of the mirror.

With a satellite orbital altitude of 35,786 km. the path of the beam from the earth requires about 0.12 seconds, and the course of the beam earth-satellite-earth takes about 0.24 seconds. In this case, the total real delay in using satellite communications will be almost half a second.
Pay attention to the label.

The service life of one satellite is 15 years. This time is enough for work and provision of satellite communication technologies developing during this time. Then the satellite becomes obsolete, and a new one comes to replace it. The satellites are very expensive, $ 190-230 million worth of construction and output of the satellite to a geostationary orbit.

The main task of the satellite owner is to build, launch and lease to consumers its frequency range.

The owner is large organizations (companies with huge financial opportunities and a strong infrastructure).There are only two such organizations in Russia: (OAO Gazprom Space Systems and FSUE Space Communications), which order the construction, finance the production process and launch the satellites themselves into a geostationary orbit. Then they provide daily operation (correction of the satellite position in orbit, monitoring and control of the on-board equipment operation).

Then we go to the building, where there are computers that work with their spacecraft, process the signals and here goes the constant reception of telemetry.

I know that among you there are specialists in space communications, is everything all right here?

The territory of the GCS is dotted with satellite dishes of all sizes.

There is even such an unusual form.

And this is the largest plate - 32 m. In diameter. Awesome size.

As we were told, satellite television in Russia is very important, which can be noticed if you drive a car along cities or villages, on whose houses there are often rusty Tricolor plates. Laying cables to remote places is quite expensive and unprofitable, and in permafrost areas they are worth their weight in gold, it should be borne in mind that cables do not last forever.

At the end of the tour we get to the main control center.

Here are the company's servers and a lot of monitors, the pictures on which experts monitor the quality of signal transmission.

Now you know how the space link is arranged, thanks for reading this post!
Special thanks to "Tricolor", which conducted this tour of the CCS in honor of its 10th anniversary. Since November 15, they have started broadcasting two channels in the "4K Ultra HD" format with a resolution of 3840 × 2160 (for comparison, the HD format is 1920x1080).
And at parting my photo with a plate on the palm. Is it really original?)

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