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Hypothyroidism is a disease in which there is a low amount of thyroid hormones in the body.

It is often said that hypothyroidism is not even a disease, but a special body of the body, in which pathological processes are observed that affect the state of the human hormone system.

Types of hypothyroidism

Primary type of hypothyroidism. In primary hypothyroidism, hormone production is reduced due to pathological processes in the thyroid gland itself.

Secondary type of hypothyroidism. In secondary hypothyroidism, abnormal functioning of the hypothalamus and pituitary, which regulate the production of thyroid hormones (thyroid hormones).


The causes of the primary type of hypothyroidism:

  • chronic autoimmune thyroiditis or inflammation of the thyroid gland;
  • hypoplasia congenital - a decrease in the thyroid gland;
  • aplasia thyroid (thyroid gland) - absence of gland;
  • thyroid hormone defects (thyroid hormones);
  • Sciromectomy - surgery on the thyroid gland;
  • thyroid irradiation;
  • the influence of medical drugs;
  • chronic infections: thyroiditis, actinomycosis, tuberculosis, abscess.
  • low levels of iodine in the body;

Causes of secondary type of hypothyroidism:

  • hemorrhage;
  • tumors;
  • necrosis of the hypothalamus or pituitary;
  • inflammation of the hypothalamus or pituitary;
  • removal of the pituitary gland.


With an insufficient number of thyroid hormones in the human body, the work of the heart, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive system, mental activity and metabolism worsen.

  • drowsiness and lethargy;
  • loss of attention and memory;
  • severe hair loss;
  • dryness and flaking of individual areas of the skin;
  • swelling of the extremities;
  • unreasonable weight gain;
  • reduced potency in men;
  • persistent constipation;
  • violation of the menstruation cycle;


In the presence of the above symptoms, you need to contact the endocrinologist, who will prescribe such studies to diagnose the disease:

  • blood chemistry;
  • thyroid biopsy;
  • a blood test for thyroid hormone levels;
  • ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland;
  • puncture of the thyroid gland.


  • hormone therapy. Taking medications with thyroid hormones. They are prescribed from several months to several years;
  • surgical treatment - removal of part of the thyroid gland.

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