Important inventions made before the invention of the wheel
It would seem that the invention of the wheel marked the beginning of the movement of man to the modern state of the level of equipment benefits around him. But relative to the whole of human history, the wheel appeared not so long ago. In Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), the wheel appeared only 5,500 years ago, and representatives of other ancient cultures were able to achieve impressive technical achievements without a wheel at all.
Before that, a man came up with a lot of very necessary and important things for himself. Many of this list we use so far.
Some archaeologists believe that the original grain was grown for the production of beer, not bread. Although the extent of the influence of alcohol on human civilization is still under discussion - its ancient origin is no secret to anyone. The most ancient evidence that people have consumed the alcohol found at the moment is the 9000-year-old chemical traces of a fermented beverage found on a drinking vessel in the neolithic settlement of Jiahu, China.
Because textiles, leather, and furs tend to break down over time, scientists had to be creative in determining the origin of clothing. The age of the dress (pictured) found in Egypt is at least 5,100 years old, that is, it is relatively recent. This dress, belonging to the period of rule of the First Dynasty of the rulers of Ancient Egypt or the period of the Old Kingdom, is made of flax (and is the most ancient piece of clothing made of textiles).
But in fact, humankind began to use clothing much earlier. The stone tool, found during archaeological excavations in Germany, has traces of tanned animal skin, suggesting that Neanderthals wore tanned skins 100,000 years ago. The 2011 study suggests that the origin of clothing can be traced due to the evolution of underwear lice, i.e. she is about 170,000 years old.
Clothing, of course, helped people to compensate for the lost wool with evolution and migrate to areas with colder climates, but it was possible that clothing had a cultural meaning. According to archaeological sources, people have also decorated themselves with jewelry for a long time.82,000-year-old punctured shells covered in red pigment from a cave in Morocco, as well as a necklace of eagle's claws aged 130,000 years, found in the Neandertal cave in Croatia are among the oldest preserved jewelry.
In Russia, at the confluence of the Sungir stream into the Klyazma river, in the Vladimir region, 30,000 summer remains of people, a 40-50 year old man and two children 10-14 years old, were found. On the costumes of the buried people there is a huge amount of jewelry, about 80 thousand in total. It can be said with confidence that today, among all the Eurasian burials of the Upper Paleolithic, the largest amount of jewelry comes from Sunghir (an ancient man’s camp on the territory of the Vladimir region).
Before carts with harnessed animals became the main means of transportation, people have long used rafts and boats. It is assumed that the canoe "Pesse", dated by the radiocarbon method around 8200-7600. BC Oe., found in the Netherlands, is the oldest preserved boat in the world. But most likely, in order to navigate the sea, for fishing or exploration, people learned to build boats even earlier.In the end, the migrants somehow crossed the oceans and ended up in Australia, Indonesia and islands in the Pacific Ocean no less than 45,000 years ago.
Long before the gears of the clocks were invented, people used sophisticated methods to determine time. One group of archaeologists claims that the first lunar calendar appeared 10,000 years ago. This ensemble Aberdeenshire, located in Scotland, which consists of 12 holes and forms an arcuate structure. It denotes the months of the year. In Central Africa, Russia and Ukraine, not calendars in the form of holes were found, but various patterns on stones, bones and vessels, also divisible by 12.
6. Geographical maps
People had to invent not only ways to track the lunar cycles, but also to understand how to navigate in space. Archaeologists are still discussing the importance of early rock art, but some of the oldest examples of possible prehistoric maps come from the Abaunz cave in Spain. The 14,000-year-old stone tablets are believed to represent mountains, rivers and ponds, intersecting trails and hunting trails. Also, the map-like images of mountains, rivers, valleys and routes found around the city of Pavlova (Czech Republic) were dated to about 25 millennium BC. er
When people learned to make fire, they invented cooking. After all, if you cook meat and some types of plant food on fire, then you do not need to spend so much energy on chewing and digesting these products. It was previously thought that people began to use fire for cooking 500,000 years ago, but paleontologists established that people began to process food on fire about 1.9 million years ago. Beginning with Homo erectus, the structure of the teeth begins to change, which, according to scientists, is a sign of the emergence of the habit of cooking.
8. Musical Instruments
Modern scholars have suggested that music has been around for about 50,000 years. The most ancient copies of the musical instrument were found during excavations in Germany, in the Hole-Fels cave. They lay next to the sculptures, which date back to 35,000–40,000 years BC. These were flutes made from the vulture wing and mammoth tusks. Their thickness does not exceed 8 mm, and the length is 21.8 cm. Five holes are punched in the casing, which were closed with fingers during the game.
The usual modern glue from the market has a long history. About 200,000 years ago, Neanderthals,wandering around Europe, they used sticky birch bark resin to attach their stone tools to the handles. The discovery of scientists helped the fossils of fingerprints in the resin along with the instrument. To get such glue, birch was specially burned. In the firing process, resin was released and then all the elements were glued together with this resin.
Thousands of years before the wheel was invented, people made vessels for eating, drinking, and storing food, by creating a mold from clay and then burning it. The primitive man began to make his first dishes from wood and bark, weaving baskets from twigs. But all this dishes were uncomfortable, it was impossible to cook in it, you can not store liquids.
The most ancient ceramic vessels were found in China and they turned 20,000 years old. They made harnesses from clay, put them on each other in a spiral and squeezed. Ware covered with some combustible material and set on fire. Thus it was possible to burn the dishes from all sides. Later the potter's wheel appeared, and some even claim that it is the first type of wheel ever created.
11. Bow and Arrows
Remains of five bows, created 9000 years ago, were found in the stone age village of Holmegards Mose in Denmark. But bows and arrows were invented much earlier. Recently, scientists reported the discovery of a bloody arrowhead at least 64 thousand years old, and not in Europe, but in the South African cave Sibudu. These findings are very important, since the invention of these tools requires complex forms of thinking. If we find out when the bow and arrows were invented, we will establish when our ancestors began to think like modern humans.
Among modern humans, the stereotype of the ancient man is widespread - a sort of shaggy savage in the skin of an animal and with a baton. But in reality, our ancestors were much smarter and more inventive than we used to think. This is evidenced by multiple archaeological finds. The more we make discoveries in archeology, the more surprising the world of antiquity opens to us.