Main management functions and their characteristics
Before considering the basic functionsmanagement is to reveal the very concept of management function. First of all, it is worth noting that the management of the organization is a rather complex process, which includes various types of management activities. All the basic functions of management are in close interconnection, forming an integral system aimed at achieving certain goals. All the main functions of management are characterized by specific methods and methods. Let's consider what types of management activities constitute the general concept of the main management functions:
The basic, starting function of management isplanning. The activities of a company or firm must begin with a plan. For completeness of the picture, it is not enough just to list the management functions, their characteristics will help to reveal the issue more deeply. Thanks to planning, the company's goals and priorities are determined, and a program of necessary actions aimed at achieving them is drawn up.
It is accepted to divide planning by types: long-term, covering a period of time not less than 3 and up to 5 years; medium term - at least a year; short-term - within the calendar year.
Experienced managers use all kinds ofplanning. The professionalism of the manager consists in perspective thinking combined with practical actions, as well as in the ability to set goals. Results-based management is nothing more than a goal-based management uniting planning and monitoring.
Thus, considering such a concept of a functionmanagement, as planning, we are closely connected with the control function, which is the observation of how effectively the organization achieves its goals, as well as, if necessary, the correction of deviations. Control allows you to identify and correct problems in a timely manner before they become irreversible. At the same time, control serves as a kind of link connecting all management functions, their characteristics will be presented later.
No less important is the function of management, as an organization. It includes both organizational design and the organization of the work process.
In the process of organizational designthe division of the whole company into blocks is carried out in the most important directions, allocated to achieve the organization's goals. Here the powers of various posts and their relations are established.
The organization of the process is designed to ensure the normal functioning and interaction of various divisions of the company when achieving the set goals.
The organizational structure is formed in the processorganizational design, so this is nothing more than rules that are developed by managers for the effective allocation of responsibilities and division of labor. The organizational structure allows for a transition from plans to actions.
Another function of management is motivation,which is a process of stimulating the company's employees to activities that are strictly aimed at achieving its goals. Motivation, as management activity, uses the following levers of influence on the collective: moral and economic stimulation.
Under the stimulation is understood the use of various incentives to motivate people. In this case, the motivation theory used by the manager can be broken down as follows:
Theories of the process of motivation, revealing the dynamics of interaction of different motives;
Theories of the content of motivation, revealing and analyzing the factors of motivation.