Marble: properties and application
To begin a story about the properties of marble can, perhaps, with this fact: this rock consists solely of calcite, CaCO3. It is also known as lime spar. It is a mineral from the group of carbonates (salts and esters of carbonic acid).
Interestingly, calcite is the most common biological mineral. It constitutes the endoskeleton and shells of many skeletal invertebrates.
It should be noted that during recrystallization of a substance with the formula CaMg (CO3)2dolomite marbles are formed.
If we talk about hardness, then it is in marble is 2.5-3 points on the Mohs scale. The density is 2.3-2.6 g / cm ³. This is not a very durable material - it can be scratched with copper.
A few words should be said about the physical properties of marble. They can be distinguished in the following list:
- Water absorption ranges from 0.15 to 0.5 percent.
- Resistance to compression is 500-2500 kgf / cm2.
- Porosity can range from 0.6% to 3.5%.
- Abrasion varies from 0.4 to 3.2 g / cm2.
Unambiguous structure of the material is not. The main two.The fine-grained structure gives the material excellent polishing properties. And in the application of marble it is taken into account. A coarse-grained structure is reflected in the cleavage of the grains.
Speaking about the basic chemical properties of marble, it should be noted that there is always at least a minimal part of other minerals and organic compounds in it. They affect the quality of the material - either reduce or increase its decorative effect. And the color, by the way, also depends on the impurities. Most colored rocks have a banded or variegated color. Here are examples of the effect of impurities on color:
- Iron oxide (metal compound with oxygen). Paints marble in red. Less common are pink modifications. Even more difficult to see marble with a "rusty" shade.
- High dispersion ferrous sulfide (binary compound of sulfur and iron of inorganic nature). Paints marble in black and blue.
- Iron-containing silicates. In particular, chlorite (mica-like mineral) and epidote (complex iron-aluminum-calcium silicate). They paint the marble green.
- Limonite (mineral aggregate, which is a mixture of hydrates of iron oxide), as well as carbonates of manganese and iron. Paint marble in brown and yellow tones.
- Graphite (carbon modification) and bitumen (mountain resin). Painted in black, blue and gray.
Speaking about the features and properties of marble, it should be noted that the pattern is still determined by the direction in which the stone is cut. The pattern, like color, appears after polishing.
The history of the mineral in Russia
In our country there are many areas where such stone as marble is mined. Its properties have been appreciated for a long time.
The first in Russia began to use a mineral of Karelian origin. This durable and visually attractive stone was discovered in a small village called Tivdia. It is distinguished by a pale-fawn color with streaks of pink. It was he who was used in the interior decoration of St. Isaac's and Kazan Cathedrals located in St. Petersburg.
Then, near the Ladoga Lake (the largest freshwater reservoir in Europe), Yuvensky marble was discovered. It was also used as a finishing material in many cathedrals and palaces of St. Petersburg.
Place of Birth
The largest deposits in Russia are those located in the Urals. There are a total of 20.However, marble with special properties is mined only from eight deposits.
White, for example, is concentrated in the Koelginsky and Aidyrlinsky deposits. Gray - in Polevskoy, Ufaleysk and Marmara. Yellow is extracted from deposits near the Pochin and October quarries. The pink-red mineral is concentrated in the Nizhnetagilskoye deposit, and the black - in the Pershinskoye deposit.
On the territory of Western Siberia and Altai there are more than 50 deposits. However, only three fields are being developed. Fine-grained white marble with green-red veins is mined in Pashtulimsky. In Gramatushinsky concentrated pink-lilac mineral. Near the Petenevsky quarry, cream-gray marble is mined.
Also, a large deposit is located in Khakassia. It is called Kibik-Kordon. There are concentrated more than 20 varieties of marble of all shades - gray-green, cream, yellow, white, orange.
And of course, this rock is on Baikal. In the Irkutsk region is the field Burovschina. Copper-grained marble of red-pink color with gray, orange, green and lilac shades is mined there.It is this material was used in the decoration of many metro stations in Moscow ( "Tretyakov," "Marxist" and so on. D.).
Lithotherapists say they are characteristic of marble. Healing property - one of the reasons that many appreciate this rock. According to these statements, the mineral is capable of:
- To cure diseases of the intestine, pancreas and stomach.
- Get rid of unreasonable fears.
- Cure for insomnia.
- Relieve stress.
Many practicing massage marble balls. They say it helps with lumbago (lumbago), myelitis, vascular diseases.
They even make pendants and beads from marble. They help get rid of pain in the throat, and even prevent the development of cardiovascular disease. Bracelets and rings of this mineral are advised to wear for people with excessive sweating.
And for them, too, prized marble. The properties of this rock have long been recognized by people. The ancient Greeks dedicated this mineral to Aphrodite, goddess of love. All of her temples were made of marble.
It was believed that this material gives the loyalty and devotion of everyone who approached him, or touches, and even lust cools.Marble was attributed to the ability to make conjugal love stronger and help in the birth of good, healthy offspring.
In ancient Rome, people built this house material or stoning them to their homes. So they protect their homes from the influence of evil spirits.
In India, even in our time, the poorest families have at least one marble product. Residents of this country are sure that he is a mediator between good spirits and people.
By the way, astrologers advised to be in possession of all the marble product, regardless of the sign of the zodiac. They say the stone instantly adjusted to the biological field is the owner and has a positive effect on his aura.
The unique properties of marble are fully used in the construction industry. The name of this mineral is called metamorphic rocks, having an average hardness and amenable to polishing. These include:
- Marble limestone. It is also called the Jurassic marble. This is a limestone with a massive layered composition, the color of which varies from beige to gray-blue. It contains various types of organic fossils.
- Dense dolomite.
- Carbonate breccia.Cemented rock, which is composed of angular debris.
- Carbonate conglomerates. Sedimentary rock. Also cemented as breccia. It contains pebbles, pellets and a binder. Interestingly, inside some conglomerates often contain others.
Useful properties of marble in the erection of monuments (gravestones and sculptures), cladding and interior decoration. Also made of it boards used in the future in electrical engineering - of them make the control panel panels, switchboards and dashboards.
Even marble is turned into a crumb, which is used to form plaster and stone mosaics. This substance in this case plays the role of concrete aggregate.