Pain- the psycho-physiological condition arising in connection with the impact of super-strong stimuli that cause organic. and funkts. disturbances in the body. B. is not just a subjective sensation, but a special integrative function of the body, mobilizing various func. system (respiration, circulation, metabolism) to protect it from the effects of the damaging factor. In connection with this, B. should be considered as the most important consequence of the evolution of the living world, signaling a danger. B. occurs as a result of irritation of specific receptors - nociceptors or with strong irritation of receptors of different modalities. Chemicals are involved in receptor stimulation (substance „P enkephalins). B. is associated with an increase in the content of acetylcholine, bradycardin, and serotonin in the tissues, while the vascular permeability is disturbed, perivascular edema is increased, etc.
Important in the emergence of B. have prostaglandins. In obstetric practice, it is very important to determine the degree and nature of pain, becausethey are sometimes crucial in making a diagnosis or in choosing a methodpain relief childbirth.The assessment of the degree of pain by the patient himself is purely subjective. However, there are some objective signs of B. (dilation of the pupil, the state of peripheral vessels and their reaction to temperature stimuli, determined with the help of a plethysmograph, sweating, etc.).
In pediatric practice, it should be borne in mind that the sensation of B. in children has its own characteristics, consisting in the fact that children, especially young children, are not able to clearly define the nature, severity, localization of B., which presents significant difficulties in diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Therefore, it is not recommended (especially in det. Surgery) to prescribe painkillers before establishing on the basis of clinical observation and additional methods of accurate diagnosis.