Romantic lyrics of Pushkin A.S.
Pushkin's romantic lyrics are an important layer of the author's creativity. The key Russian poet of the XIX century is known for having manifested himself in many directions, both in romanticism, when he was young, and in realism, when he became a more mature and experienced author.
The period of Pushkin's romanticism
Pushkin's romantic lyrics were actively formed during his Southern exile. For the poet, it lasted from 1820 to 1824. Pushkin became politically unreliable because of his free poems, which were actively distributed in St. Petersburg from 1817 to 1819. A vivid example of such a work is the ode to Liberty.
However, it is worth noting that formally there was no link. Pushkin was officially simply transferred to a new duty station. He was appointed to serve in the office of Lieutenant General Inzov, who was in Yekaterinoslav. Today it is Dnepropetrovsk. Note that at that time it was a small town located at a considerable distance from the capital. The covering letter described in detail all the facts in which Pushkin was considered guilty.
Suddenly, this letter had the opposite effect.The fact is that Inzov was distinguished by philanthropy. He even had the Legion of Honor for the humane treatment of prisoners of war during the Patriotic War of 1812. In addition, he had advanced views, for example, was fond of Freemasonry. So the disgraced poet came to court. Inzov took custody of him.
Pushkin is changing
On the road to Yekaterinoslav, Pushkin had enough time to think about his position, as well as what his work should be. It is worth noting that a greatly changed poet arrived in the south of Russia, his mood and his psychological appearance had seriously changed. Most importantly, he has become much more restrained and responsible.
From now on, Pushkin determined for himself that his life was inextricably linked with poetry. His poems directly influence his destiny, and he must bear full responsibility for every written word.
Pass the romantic lyrics of Pushkin in the classroom in the 10th grade. In order to deal with it, we define the very essence of the romantic type. It consists in the sublime culture of feelings and heart feelings of the author and his lyrical hero, or to be more precise,in the ability to recognize and catch the most subtle, almost elusive shades of feelings and use different types of behavior, focusing on the classic romantic characters. For Pushkin’s contemporaries, they were the suffering young Werther of Goethe, the frantic lover Don-Juan, the dark and stern Demon.
Romantic not only chooses such roles for himself, but also distributes to everyone around him. Also for romantics inherent sense of a second reality. For example, on an ordinary day, a person can go to the most banal and boring work, solve pragmatic issues of food and his well-being, and at the same time live in a world in which he will be a special elect, whom others do not understand, devote themselves to strict questions of life .
Forms of romantic behavior
In life and work, romantic behavior can take many forms and forms. For example, the feeling of loneliness and frustration in oneself may be a desire to wander, or to be sad about a lost homeland, lost love or old friendship.
It is worth noting that such a state of mind is characteristic of many Pushkin heroes, not only lyrical, but also prosaic.A vivid example is the image of Eugene Onegin. All this in the XIX century, as a rule, had two reasons. Political (a person fled from the unjust laws of the world civilized into a society of "wild" people who lived sincerely), or the reason could be love.
At the time of Pushkin, such a state of mind was in fashion. Therefore, the romantic poetry of Pushkin is largely based on it.
In the Caucasus
Interestingly, on his first visit Pushkin spent quite a bit of time in Yekaterinoslav. Even without having time to begin his duties, he bathed in the Dnieper and caught a bad cold. Inzov allowed him to go to the Caucasus for two months.
The romantic lyrics of Pushkin of the Southern Link period began on board the brig Mingrelia, in which the poet sailed to Gurzuf. There he wrote the elegy "The daylight extinguished ...". In the poem "The Daylight of the Day Has Extinguished ..." Pushkin's romantic lyrics are manifested in his appeals to the elements surrounding the hero - the wind, the ocean. The lyrical hero watches them and asks to carry him to the "farthest limits", but not to the shores of his homeland, where he first knew love and met with the muse, where his youth blossomed.Now the old heart wounds can not heal.
Pushkin rode on horseback, visiting the Crimea at the same time. And he had to come no longer to Yekaterinoslav, but to Chisinau, where Inzov's office moved. It was in this city that the poet spent most of his exile, which became a prominent stage in his creative career.
A great role in the work of the poet had the time that he spent in the Crimea. Although it was only a few weeks, but it was here that Pushkin's poetic plans were born and developed. The Crimean and Caucasian landscapes made a big impression on him. They gave visual material for the romantic lyrics of Pushkin. In grade 10, it is studied in detail.
In his essay on the romantic lyrics of Pushkin, it is worth noting that the Caucasus was a special romantic world for him. Someone else's speech and the manners of the highlanders greatly interested him. The poet's romantic worldview was facilitated by the fact that he settled in the suburbs, lived in a dilapidated house, around there were only vacant lots and overgrown vineyards.
All this corresponded to his image of a fugitive and a voluntary exile, which he himself felt at that time.Examples of the romantic lyrics of Pushkin are the poems "Brothers-Bandits", "Prisoner of the Caucasus", "Gavriiliada", as well as the poems "To Chaadaev", "To Ovidius", "Dagger", "Black Shawl", "Napoleon". They are united by a single theme of the runaway author.
The peculiarities of Pushkin’s romantic lyrics are that the poet created a new, poetic biography for himself during this time.
Here the image of the romantic hero played an important role. It included the concept of secret love. For example, the poet, in a letter to Bestuzhev, writes about the poem "The flying ridge is thinning the clouds ...". On this occasion, the poet seems to be upset that the poem can be read by his secret lover, who may be offended because of this. At the same time, the researchers found that at that time Pushkin had no secret woman.
At that time, besides the role of the romantic hero, Pushkin had to endure another heavy everyday reality. He urgently needed money. Therefore, he constantly had to look for mutually beneficial relationships with publishers. When he was in Modavia, political events began to seethe there, Pushkin managed to see them in reality, and not in a fictional world.
Pushkin in the center of the uprising
At the very beginning of 1821, an uprising broke out in the Turkish part of Moldova.He was led by Tudor Vladimirescu. The Greeks of the Ottoman Empire began to actively call for help.
Pushkin was in the thick of things. He saw revolutionary enthusiasm, a split among the rebels, witnessed a tough relationship between the leaders of the uprising, as well as between the Russian army and secret political societies.
Particular attention in lessons in grade 10 about the romantic lyrics of Pushkin is given to how he builds his personality, trying on all sorts of romantic roles. But he does not give himself completely to any of them.
It is worth noting that it is not easy for the poet to maintain his life position. After all, he held a very low post, having only the rank of collegiate secretary. And to live in prosperity in such a situation in a society where everything is determined by ranks, a person without means was very difficult. Therefore, Pushkin was constantly immersed in financial worries, his dignity was subjected to almost daily temptations. He had to achieve everything himself in this life, without protection, connections, ranks and a large state.
In difficult times, Pushkin often recalled the words of Chaadaev.It was this fellow who was able to inspire the poet a deep faith in his own dignity. In this, according to most researchers, the reason for such a large number of duels, which Pushkin regularly appointed in Chisinau. He carefully guarded from surrounding his own "state". It, as the poet noted in one of his poems, was the key to the greatness of man.
Appeal to the Decembrists
At the lesson of literature in the 10th grade, about the romantic lyric poetry of Pushkin, be sure to recall his communication with the Decembrists. It was an important episode of his life in Chisinau. At that time, the poet took an active and direct part in the life of future Decembrists, discussions and debates that were conducted in secret societies. And there were important and dangerous conversations for their participants, the government was criticized. The image of the Decembrists is another classic romantic type of the time.
Therefore, Pushkin so hard experienced the defeat of the Chisinau circle of the Decembrists, which occurred in 1822. Following the rout, another unpleasant event occurred - the investigation against Orlov began. These events played an important role in the entire administrative structure of the Russian south.Inzov was removed, Vorontsov came to replace him, the office moved to Odessa. Pushkin also moved there.
Even speaking briefly about the romantic lyrics of Pushkin, it is necessary to mention the Odessa period. It was one of the most difficult stages in his life and work. Here he faced a lot of contradictions.
On the one hand, a free port city, filled with lots of temptations. On the other hand, the recent defeat of the Chisinau circle promised promise denunciations. During his stay in Odessa, the poet often wrote gloomy poems. The romantic lyrics of Pushkin of this period were based on the works "The Demon", "The Freedom Sower of the Desert ...", "Why were you sent and who sent you?", "The Real Guard on the royal threshold ...".
A great role in the work and life of the poet in those years was played by love. One of his hobbies is Pole Karolina Sobanskaya. She was from a noble and educated family, received a brilliant upbringing. Besides Pushkin, Mitskevich was also crazy about her. Sobanskaya herself was the mistress of the head of the southern military settlements of Witt, as well as his political agent.
Perhaps the most famous hobby of Pushkin was Anna Kern. Her portrait is presented above. This woman was for him the Muse, thanks to which many wonderful poems were born. One of them is "I remember a wonderful moment."
In his romantic outlook, Pushkin idealized all the women who surrounded him. He had another love. Her name was Amalia Riznich. At the age of 20 he married a major Odessa merchant. She was beautiful, extravagant, but tragic fate awaited her. In 1825, she died in Italy in complete poverty.
At 7 years older than Pushkin was the wife of his immediate superior Elizaveta Vorontsov. He also had a romantic relationship with her. This relationship became the cause for jealousy on the part of Vorontsov. For Pushkin this turned out to be difficulties in the service. He even asked for his resignation, which, according to the manners of the time, for a disgraced official was tantamount to insolent audacity and even rebellion.
Only in 1824, Pushkin was dismissed from service on the orders of the emperor himself. He is sent to a new place of reference. This time in the Pskov village of Mikhailovskoye, in which the poet spends the next few years.
August 1, 1824, Pushkin leaves Odessa.This ends its South Link.
Researchers relate poems written by the poet during this period to the romantic lyrics of Pushkin. This is the Crimean cycle of elegies, which, in addition to the already known to us, "The daytime light has gone out ...", included "The flying ridge of clouds thins ...", "My friend, I have forgotten the traces of past years ...", "Who saw the edge where is the luxury of nature ... "," Forgive me jealous dreams ... "," To the sea "," The rain day has gone out; the rainy night has darkened ... ".
At the same time, the last two of the elegies listed here, Pushkin wrote already being in Mikhailovsky, but still being impressed by the romantic mood that engulfed him in southern Russia. In these works, the poet uses the discoveries in the genre of elegies, made even by Zhukovsky. These are such subgenres as "elegy-confession", "elegy-memory", "love elegy" and many others. In the Crimean cycle, Pushkin’s aspiration to large poetic forms is especially noticeable. They allow the poet to depict the long-term experiences of the lyrical hero and at the same time penetrate the deepest secrets of the heart. Examples of such works are "Daughters of Karageorgiya", "Dagger", "War", "Song of the Wise Oleg", "I do not regret you, the year of my spring", "Muse", "Birdie".
By the way, elegy is one of the most successful genres for expressing the fullness of the romantic worldview of a lyrical hero. Here is often used the image of a yearning and suffering fugitive, who forever left his native place. In these works, Pushkin shows his brilliant mastery of the style of romantic poetry. In these elegies his individual features are also manifested. These include romantic motifs and images that are not the literary convention of the poet. They exactly correspond to the world around the author, have documentary authenticity, correlate with real events that took place in the life of the poet.
Pushkin’s lyrical hero often finds himself in classic romantic places where a person is always on the verge of death. These are rocks, rough sea, heavy wind. The poet all these images have amazing realism, as if the reader begins to feel them.
The hero himself, as a rule, is located in the epicenter of the elements. The reality surrounding him is brought to the limit, puts him on the brink of life and death, which is so important for a romantic character.Another important feature of Pushkin's romanticism is the deep penetration of life into poetry and vice versa.
An important theme of these years is freedom. And it differs from his early free-will lyric poetry. At this time, Pushkin was already largely disappointed, he doubted that something in life could be changed and corrected. He rethinks his views in the poems "Who stopped you in the waves ...", "V. F. Rajewski", "Happened, in sweet blindness ...".