Sculpture of Ancient Egypt - distinctive features
Sculpture of Ancient Egypt to its appearance andfurther development is due to religious beliefs. The requirements of the cult faith were the basis for the appearance of a particular type of statue. Religious teachings led to the iconography of sculptures, as well as the location of their installation.
Sculpture of Ancient Egypt, the basic rulesthe creation of which was finally formed during the Early Kingdom period, had a frontal and symmetrical figure, clarity and tranquility of lines. All these characteristics corresponded to its immediate purpose, and also were due to the places of its location, which were mostly niches in the walls.
The sculpture of Ancient Egypt is distinguished by the predominance of certain poses. These include:
- Sitting - hands while lying on their knees;
- standing - the left leg is pushed forward;
- pose of a scribe who sits cross-legged.
For all sculptures, a number of rules were mandatory:
- direct setting of the head;
- the presence of attributes of a profession or authority:
- a certain kind of coloring for female and male bodies (yellow and brown, respectively);
- Inlay of the eyes with stones or bronze;
- exaggeration of power and development of the body, which contributed to the message of the solemn elevation;
- the transfer of individual features of the deceased (it was believed that the statues observed the life of people through special holes made at eye level).
Sculpture of Ancient Egypt became one of the meansin the mastery of portraiture. Using gypsum, they tried to save the corpse from decomposition, getting a kind of mask. However, for the image of a living person, it was required that the eyes of the sculpture were open. In order to achieve this, the mask was further processed.
Sculptures of Ancient Egypt are found at the autopsytombs. Their main purpose was to display various aspects of the funerary cult. In some tombs, the researchers found statues of wood. Above them, in all probability, committed certain religious rituals. During the Middle Kingdom, figurines of workers were placed in the tombs. Their purpose was to ensure the afterlife of the deceased. At the same time the sculptors portrayed people at the time of the most varied activities.
Architectural design of the temples of Ancient Egyptwas made using statues. Sculptures stood along the leading roads to them, in courtyards and indoor areas. Those statues, the main load of which was the architectural and decorative design, differed from the cult. Their figures were large, and in outline there was no detail.
Statues, which convey images of kings,contained prayers in which God was asked health and well-being, and sometimes assistance in political affairs. The period that lasted after the fall of the Ancient Kingdom was characterized by radical changes in the ideological field. Pharaohs, who sought to glorify themselves and their power, commanded to put their statues in the temples, next to the figures of various deities. The main purpose of such sculptures was the glorification of the living ruler. In this regard, these statues should have been as accurate as possible with the portrait of the pharaoh.