Set expressions in Russian
The idiom, or stable, winged saying - it is figurative, aptly which previously entered into common use. Winged, these expressions are called for the reason that they quickly spread.
The history of the emergence of phraseological turns
Among the many different stable expressions, some have their own author, some have been created by the people, many denote some specific moments of history or the use of specific professional skills.
According to what words they contain, stable expressions can be figuratively divided into two groups - direct and portable. Often one can understand by expression what its essence is. For example, the expression “keep your mouth shut” explains itself. We immediately understand that we are talking about silence.
But the expression "spinning like a squirrel in a wheel" means hard work, a constant load.
If we use the phrase “dragging chestnuts out of the fire” as an example, it is not entirely clear what the person is talking about using this expression.It came to us from the work of La Fontaine and means that a person performs dangerous and difficult work, and another uses it; a person does work instead of someone.
Many phraseological units came to our speech from some specific points in history. For example, from the 18th century, a turn came to us “it was near Poltava”, because at that time the battle between Russians and Swedes near Poltava actually took place.
Professional phraseological units include medical expressions “wiped out into powder” or “in an hour by a teaspoon.”
Groups of phraseological units
All the phraseological units known to us are divided into several large groups according to their genesis.
The first group includes stable expressions that fall into the structure of the Russian language from Old Church Slavonic - common Slavonic (Proto-Slavic), various tracing paper, and phrases borrowed from other languages.
The second group should include the phraseological units that are most often used by us today. This is a group of native Russian phraseological units. These are various phrases from professional vocabulary of many people, as well as from artistic works.
The third group includes phraseological units that emerged at the time of the emergence of independent East Slavic languages. All stable expressions of this group arose from arbitrary combinations of words and were created according to the rules of the Russian language. It is worth noting that this group will be the most numerous in its composition.
Common Slavonic Phraseology
Common Slavonic idioms are mostly quotes from Holy Scripture books that are archaic in nature and often include obsolete words (archaisms). Such expressions are called biblical.
Phrases of this nature can be attributed to: “beating babies”, “washing hands”, “haughty place”, “not looking at faces”, “look and ye will find”, “crown of thorns”, “their name is legion”.
As already indicated, many Biblicalisms include obsolete words in their composition, which today are almost not used. These will be such stable expressions as “for a dream to come”, “the talk of the town”, “the Babylonian pandemonium”, “treasure it”, “the fiend of hell”, “not of this world”, “like them” and others. . All these phraseological units are used quite widely by us, but, as a rule, individual archaisms are no longer used in free form.
Actually Russian set expressions
Originally, Russian expressions are also divided according to the meaning into several groups.
The first group should include those who came from colloquial speech and are often used in everyday life: “born in a shirt”, “patience and hard work”, “fish and cancer”, “teeth to speak”, “miracles in the sieve” , "To lose the head", "even a stake on the head teshes", "the girl is red" and many others.
The second group of primordial Russian phraseological units includes expressions from artistic and scientific works, literature. This group, too, in turn, can be divided into several subgroups:
1) winged words and expressions from journalism and literature: “I did not notice the elephant” (I. A. Krylov), “the tradition is fresh, but hard to believe,” “with feeling, sensibly, with alignment” ( S. Griboedov), “a great ship — a great sailing” (N. V. Gogol), “we all learned a little, something, and somehow” (A. S. Pushkin), “as if something had not happened” (A.P. Chekhov), “better is less and better” (V.I. Lenin and so on;
2) various phrases taken from scientific terminology: “center of gravity”, “lead to a common denominator”, “go on an incline”, “bring to a white heat”.
East Slavic expressions and tracing
The group of East Slavic idioms includes those that came to us from other languages, were translated in parts. Most cripples in our language can be completely invisible, that is, foreign language is not felt in them.
Many turnovers came to us directly from the English language. Many stable expressions in the English language coincide in meaning and translation, and there are those that already have their analogues in Russian.
For example, phraseological units that will have a similar meaning should include the following: a sore subject (“a sore point”), act the fool (“fooling around”), Sena "), a fine gesture (" beautiful gesture "). All these stable expressions are translated literally and directly.
But there are also those that are analogues in meaning, but they sound quite differently:
- to pull the devil by the tail (from the English. "pull the devil by the tail") - "fight like a fish against the ice";
- a round peg in a square hole (from the English. "Round stake in a square hole") - "to be out of place";
- that’s the heart of the matter (“in this is the heart of the matter”) - “this is where the dog is buried”;
- it rains cats and dogs (from English "it rains cats and dogs") - "it pours like a bucket";
- smell hell (from the English. "feel the smell of hell") - "sip grief".
Strong expressions in English - today the same frequent occurrence as in Russian. Phraseology is an integral part of speech that is used by everyone, even children. There are so many such phrases that sometimes we do not even think about using them.