Suzdal - Museum of Wooden Architecture or the Ghost of the Dmitrievsky Pechora Monastery
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Suzdal! With just this word, my heart starts to beat faster. I do not know why. This happened before and after my trip to the Golden Ring. Curious - is it true !? Here I am too) What is calling me here, my soul, not otherwise !? And finally, I responded to this long-standing call ...)
The first point of my research of my mysterious unconscious sensations in Suzdal was the Museum of Wooden Architecture. It was created relatively recently - in the 60s of the last century and is now on the high bank of the Kamenka river on the site of the former Dmitrievsky Pechora monastery, one of the oldest in Suzdal. Further, under the cut, my impressions of the museum and some free figurative thoughts about the fate of such ancient historical sites.
The Dmitrievsky monastery in Suzdal was founded at the time of the penetration of Christianity into Russia by the monks of the Kiev-Pechora monastery in the 11th century on the initiative of the Pereyaslavsky bishop Efrem - the closest associate of Vladimir Monomakh. The church of Dmitry Solunsky was built here, the monastery was named exactly as Dmitrievsky Pechora and is mentioned in the annals in 1096. In 1238 the monastery and the city itself was burned by the Tatar-Mongol hordes during the capture of Suzdal, because almost all the buildings at that time, including the Suzdal churches, were wooden. In 1690, instead of the already dilapidated church of Dmitry Solunsky, they built a new wooden church of Dmitriev and then surrounded the monastery with a wooden fortress wall with watchtowers. During the period of reforms of Catherine II, the monastery was closed, and the church of Dmitry was converted into a parish church, and in 1773 it was dismantled for dilapidation and a stone church with a bell tower was built. It existed until 1930 and was dismantled.
Now this ancient place is the Museum of Wooden Architecture of the Vladimir land. Before the revolution, there were two churches here - Dimitrievskaya (1773) with the bell tower of 1812 and the "warm" St. George's Church (1751).
Log houses, household buildings, wells, mills and other old wooden historical buildings were brought here from many regions of the Vladimir region. Here, two wooden churches, obviously, with their outlines, should resemble ancient monastic buildings. The place for the museum of traditional wooden buildings has been successfully and fairly realisticly recreating the lost element of the historical topography of Suzdal. Archaeological excavations before the organization of this museum complex revealed many finds dating back to the XII-XIII centuries. A large blacksmith shop was also found, apparently located in the monastery suburb, near the walls of the monastery.
An unusual find was made on the territory of this museum, on the site of the newly-established Church of the Transfiguration, during construction work - a white-stone trapezoid-shaped sarcophagus with a distinguished semicircular headband, I had seen the same in VladimirBogolyubsky monasteryin the Cathedral of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin. Such sarcophagi were an innovation for Russia of the XII century. and only the nobles were buried in them. The sarcophagus, by the way, was empty.
The historical fate of this one of the oldest Russian monasteries was not entirely successful - it did not become a famous center of spiritual, cultural life, like Spaso-Evfimievsky,Pokrovsky or Rizopolozhensky monasteries of Suzdal. However, at the early stage of its existence, in the XI-XIII centuries, apparently, played a significant role in the formation of Christianity in Suzdal. The monastery is presented as a major cultural center, a kind of "northern Kiev-Pechersk Lavra", most likely, chronicling was carried out here. Frankly speaking, there is practically no detailed historical information about this monastery and we know very little about its life and fate.
Map of modern historical Suzdal. The Museum of Wooden Architecture can be found at the bottom of the map, to the right, under the inscription "Kremlin".
And this is a scheme of ancient Suzdal from the 10th-13th centuries.
The land on which the Museum stands is holy, not chosen by our contemporaries to place the museum at random and carries for us virtually unexplored historical details of its spiritual life and the secrets of the birth of Christianity in Russia. I do not really like new artificial religious buildings, especially recreated in modern stylization. From such buildings in the soul "something frowns") and does not believe in them at all. Here is the holy land, the birth and sources of Russian Christianity, but the exhibits are real historical objects.
In the 11th century, monasticism obviously differed greatly from its brethren of the later periods of our history and, above all, by the fierce unrestrained faith, and undoubtedly this land carries its deep spiritual history, suffering and passion, the strength of the true faith of those people, and as they say now, energy. I was very interested in how I would feel on this earth, the earth, where some artificial similarity and fragments of the former greatness of one of the most ancient Russian male Orthodox monasteries of Suzdal are now located.
We arrived at the Museum about ten in the morning. Everywhere there were colorful buses and a lot of personal vehicles. The weather was clean, spring. The morning haze, the sunken sky, gradually opened the blue depth of the transparent May sky. The sun, hiding in this haze, tried to break through to this eternal earth, awakening in it a new life and new discoveries for those living now. Of course, this is an ancient land, everything spoke about it. From the side of the Dmitrievsky Monastery a view ofSuzdal Kremlinwith the blue domes of the Nativity Cathedral (XII-XVI centuries) - the oldest building in Suzdal and the whole district with many beautiful churches at different distances.
By the way, the number of churches in Suzdal is simply breathtaking and is not amenable to conscious analysis and acceptance. Obviously, we are accustomed to the fact that the church is necessarily a rare religious building for an ordinary residential area is absolutely not true. After all, the churches in the same Moscow were no less, but only a small part of them survived.
The first thing that immediately catches the eye is the curious huts-barns of the 17th century on high wooden stilts on the bank of the Kamenka river and its small flood meadow. These huts, labazi, were brought here from the floodplain of the Oka River and served once to store grain and transfer it to river barges ...
Then the gaze itself is attracted to the majestic Transfiguration Church behind a timbered fence. You are embraced by some pacified feeling, and you, suddenly, involuntarily, find yourself immediately turned off from the context of a fussy, hurried and tense city life ...
Before the entrance is already a small queue. Travelers run in groups.
Traditional wooden gate to the museum.
So these entrance buildings look already from the territory of the museum.
This Transfiguration Church, built in 1756 and brought here from the village. Kozlyat'evo Kolchuginsky district of Vladimir region.
The church in three tiers, the center consists of three octagons on each other, elegantly topped with a bulbous cupola, covered with a plowshare (wooden tiles). Two side chapels complete similar, slightly smaller cupolas. The annexes surrounding the church are decorated with a barrel covering, and a simple intricate porch leads to a light gallery, elevated above the ground and fastened to the extension wall.
Majestic lightness - the first thing that immediately comes to mind. The church is now closed to the public.
This is the Resurrection Church from. Potakino Kameshkovsky district (1776). Such temples were very common in the Vladimir province - "octagon on four", covered with a plank roof, topped with a small cupola.
The church is built on a three-part-axial composition (the so-called "ship"): the refectory adjoins the main part, and the tent bell tower with a porch is attached to the refectory in the west. The bell tower is completed by a rather wide speck tent with a policeman (cornice) and a small cupola, as well as the others, covered by a ploughshare.
In this wooden church, the decoration of the church of those times is recreated. And, this is all very interesting.In this wooden church some other own sensations are manifested than in the stone one. Here, in this temple, you feel some kind of spiritual comfort and the original softness of living building material. The church of the XVIII century, and, although a lot of new building materials were used in its reconstructed appearance, the feeling that the temple is alive and gently responds to your greeting and silent presence was piercingly clear. I stood here and tried to catch this loose link with the past and the present ...
Vague and strange disturbing visions were breaking through, as if something was not quite so ... Obviously, the energy of this fading church does not fit in with its current location and intended use. The temple seemed to share the pain and detachment from its original place. Amazing and unusual impression.
It is a wooden house of a middle-class peasant from the village of Ilkino, Melenkovsky district (XIX century). The facade is decorated with deaf carvings. Recreated residential historic interior of the house.
Before us is the wooden house of a prosperous peasant from the village of Log in the Vyaznikovsky district (XIX century). The house is two-storey with a carved eaves of the "urban" type and with a covered courtyard.
Svetelka. Here is a traditional loom.The work on the yarn helped the female peasant half pass the winter days and dark evenings.
Unpretentious peasant belongings.
Chest. In such typical objects of the peasant interior of those times, they kept all the most expensive.
Winter sleighs, carts, agricultural tools and related equipment were usually kept in the covered yard.
Wheel well from the village of Koltsovo, Selivanovsky district (middle of the 19th century).
Wells of this type were called "stupalny". To lift the water, a man would go inside the wheel, equipped with steps, and, stepping as if on a staircase, spun the wheel. Two big tubs fell alternately into the well. Convenient and large, you will not say anything.
Here in this typical residential rural house there is a museum souvenir shop. I would take pictures with pleasure there.
In the distance, on the border of the vast and deserted territory of the museum, there are two windmills, for some reason immediately reminded of the characters of Cervantes)
Now we are gradually returning to the real historical part of the territory of the Dmitriev-Pechora monastery ...
Generally, a strange feeling from this place. Peace, tranquility and at the same time piercing emptiness embrace you.I can’t get rid of the feeling that everything here, despite the apparent integrity of the wooden buildings of the museum’s territory, seems to me like a classic image of ancient ancient ruins, from which only a faint whisper of past times remained.
Unnaturalness is manifested precisely in the fragmented, not integral composition of the museum exhibits. For me, it would be better to recreate the appearance of the ancient wooden Dmitrievsky monastery here, all its religious, auxiliary buildings, the monastic suburb, rather than exporting wooden originals that have lost their power, the whole meaning of their existence and purpose. The overall impression is blurred by the separately standing rare exhibits, the desert of this place, and two large lonely windmills, creating an abandoned and sad impression of the past times of Don Quixote ...
Looking around the entire vast territory of the museum, I deliberately relaxed, felt the local melancholy of abandonment, isolation from the whole world ... The ghost of the Dmitrievsky monastery appealed to the living, recalling the fate of many of the disappeared temples, monasteries, cities and states, that "everything passes ..." .
The image of anxious and tense monastic life was beginning to manifest itself in front of me.These difficult stoic everyday life of the monastery raised from the unknown depths of time the image of the strict thin face of a monk in black. His dark, sharp, deep eyes pierced me and penetrated into the very soul ... Here, as if I heard a quiet and deep deep solemn voice, - Svyatom Slovo, ... It was like an echo of an echo, suddenly and not clear ... like a sudden gust of wind. I suddenly felt the distinctive smell of ashes, and a lot of olfactory sensations burst into the boundaries of my conscious assessments - dimensional strikes on metal were heard somewhere, a crow shout, as if the crowd was ringing behind the low wooden gates ... For an instant I saw the monastery tracks crossing in the place where I stood. At the site of the present location of the Transfiguration Church, it was as if there was a small single-domed wooden church with several wooden crosses to its left. The sky was dark, cloudy, there was strong chilliness, anxiety and dull tension in everything and around ... Gradually everything calmed down and the images somewhere inside me peacefully and gradually disappeared ... For a while the monk's eyes were still in front of me ... GREAT! I finally breathed in deeply and sucked into my lungs the fresh May air.Everything around was filled with new, nascent life, peaceful joy and pacification ...
"Holy Word!", - I later googled, but such a phrase and something like that is not mentioned anywhere. Obviously, this flown phrase from the depths of the ages can be interpreted as "I sanctify the Word of God" ... I don't know. I am far from being an expert in Old Slavic and Church Slavonic languages ...
It was time to finish my research. I heard that during the holidays a lot of people gather here, probably, then these vast spaces of the museum are completely filled and these empty museum lands become in demand. Certainly, for the holidays this place in Suzdal fits perfectly.
The idea to open such a museum, of course, is good. It is clear that they wanted to recreate something similar to Kizham, but the impression was that they could not provide a sufficiently rich quantity and quality of museum exhibits, which should lead to amazement of an inexperienced visitor. It is evident that this vast territory was intended for a much larger number of buildings than it is now.The idea of reviving the Dmitrievsky monastery on the basis of two existing wooden churches is left hanging in the air. Just imagine that you find yourself at the "old" wooden walls of the Dmitrievsky Monastery and immerse yourself in the ancient way of life and the structure of the monastic community, visit the working forges and pottery workshops of the monastic settlement. Impressions would be much more, and they would be stronger. However, dreams, dreams ...)
Stepping outside the museum, I felt how a heavy wave of emotional tension ebbed from me, as if I had cleared this deep unconscious heartache that still hovers invisibly above this place. Again and again I am convinced that if some historical events were connected with a historical place like this, human passions, emotions, blood were spilled, if religious and religious buildings existed on it, definitely a place can open up and tell about itself, despite that apparently nothing has been preserved on it ... Another question is whether this is necessary !? And, can go on excursions and just relax, wandering aimlessly through the ruins of history amusing your idle curiosity!? ...)
... And on the other side of the Kamenka, behind the flood meadows among the faded dark grass of last year, the Christmas Cathedral solemnly shone ... as a reminder of the eternal ...
The ghost of the Dmitrievsky monastery opened a fragment of its uneasy and mysterious history to me today. I remained deeply impressed. Nevertheless, it is precisely for this that we are going to these ancient lands, in order to discover a new part of ourselves, our unexplored feelings, our new thoughts, to get unexpected insights, to learn more about ourselves, to realize what our consciousness does not persist. for us to do when we are in the context of our, it seems to us, integral and practical urban life. With each such shaky insight, we will more and more learn all our new incarnations, new facets of our personality, discovering for ourselves a new world around us, delivering inexpressible pleasure to our immortal soul, new human experience and the basis for moving forward.