The countries with which Russia fought the most
The history of Russia is the history of constant wars.
The Russian philosopher Ivan Ilyin wrote: “Solov'ev counts from 1240 to 1462 (for 222 years) - 200 wars and invasions. From the XIV century to the XX-th (for 525 years) Sukhotin counts 329 years of war. Russia has fought two thirds of its life. ”
Wars: From the middle of the XVI century to the beginning of the XIX - 10 wars.
The history of the Russian-Swedish confrontation began in the XII century. The Novgorod Republic and Sweden fought for control of the Eastern Baltic. In 1323 the Orekhovets peace treaty was concluded, according to which Karelia became a zone of Novgorod influence, and Finland - Swedish.
However, this was only the beginning of centuries of confrontation. In 1377 Sweden subjugated western Karelia (Esterbotten) dependent on Novgorod. After the Novgorod Republic became part of the Russian state in 1478, the struggle with the Swedes for the Eastern Baltic States reached a new level.
In 1495, Ivan III went to war with Sweden for all the same western Karelia. The struggle went on with varying success.Finally, in March 1497, the First Novgorod Truce was concluded for six years. It confirmed the border in 1323, as well as the principle of free trade between Sweden and Russia. In March 1510, the truce was extended for another 60 years.
In the future, the tradition of war with Sweden across the Baltic continued by other Russian tsars. Ivan IV, Fedor I and Alexey Mikhailovich.
A fundamental change in the distribution of forces in Russian-Swedish relations was introduced by Peter the Great. After the victory of Russia in the Northern War (1700-1721), Sweden lost its former power. She lost not only the territory ceded to Russia, but also a lot of land on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea. Only Wismar and a small part of Pomerania remained behind Sweden. Also as a result of the defeat in the Northern War in Sweden, the so-called “Era of Freedom” began - a period of weakening of the power of kings and strengthening the importance of parliament.
In an effort to reclaim lands lost during the Northern War, Sweden repeatedly entered into conflicts with the Russian Empire (Russian-Swedish war of 1741–1743, Russian-Swedish war of 1788–1790, Russian-Swedish war of 1808-1809) in September 1809, Sweden ceded Russia to the Aland Islands, Finland, and also Lapland to the Torniooka and Muonioelle rivers.Thus, Sweden as a result of wars with Russia lost more than a third of its territory and lost its status of a great power.
Wars: 12 wars in 241 years. On average, one Russian-Turkish war was separated from another by 19 years.
From the end of the 16th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the bloody wars between the Ottoman and Russian empires continued constantly. The “apple of contention” was control over the Northern Black Sea and North Caucasus, later - for control in the South Caucasus, for the right of navigation on the Black Sea and its straits, as well as for the rights of Christians in the Ottoman Empire.
In the First World War, which resulted in the Ottoman Empire, divided between the countries of the Entente ceased to exist, the Russian Empire was also considered the question of the conquest of Constantinople. Ironically, in the creation of the Turkish Republic, the Soviet Union took the most direct part. The centuries-old feud turned into economic and military support for Turkish President Kemal Ataturk.
Wars: 10 wars, from 1018 to 1939.
Relations between Russia and Poland have always been tense. First of all, it was connected with the centuries-old neighborhood of the two states, which constantly spawned territorial disputes.During all the major European conflicts, Russia always had to deal with the revision of the Russian-Polish borders. The most serious confrontation between Russia and Poland has been going on since the beginning of the 17th century - from the Time of Troubles and the Polish-Lithuanian intervention. Until the end of the 18th century, there were four wars between Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which ended in the second partition of Poland.
In 1815, Poland became part of the Russian Empire, but the confrontation of Poles and Russians did not cease - two Polish uprisings of the 19th century (1830, 1863) forced Russia to take countermeasures. In 1832, the Polish Sejm was eliminated and the Polish army was disbanded. In 1864 - restrictions were imposed on the use of the Polish language and the movement of the male population. At the same time, Russophobia grew in Poland.
After the revolution, the Poles gained their cherished independence, during the Soviet-Polish war of 1919–21 they even managed to defend it, but in less than 20 years, in 1939, during the “liberation campaign of the Red Army” all the gains of the Poles of the 20s were eliminated.
History in wars
From other countries whose history of wars with Russia has a long history, we can call Germany, with which our country had three major wars, two of which were world wars.
Four times the Russian Empire fought with France (the war of 1805–1807, the Patriotic War of 1812, the Crimean War), four times Russia and the USSR went to war with Japan, three times - in military conflicts with China.
A similar thought was expressed by General Alexei Kuropatkin. In 1900, he wrote in his memorandum to Nicholas II: “Over the previous 200 years, Russia was at war for 128 years and had 72 years of peace. Of the 128 years of the war, 5 years fell on defensive wars and 123 on aggressive ones. ”