The oath of kings under the oak, which no one was in a hurry to perform
January 21, 1188 after news reached Europe about the defeat of the army of Christians under Hattin and the fall of Jerusalem, European kings, dukes and earls, actively kicked by papal legates gathered for a meeting.
The event did not take place in a castle, a tavern or a city, but in a forest near the town of Gisors under a visible oak tree. And it ended with the fact that most of the participants promised to go on a crusade to reconquer Jerusalem again. Among those who made the promise were Henry II Plantagenet, King of England, Philip-Augustus — King of France, Hugo, Duke of Burgundy, Philip, Count of Flanders and Count Champagne Heinrich. In general, the company was remarkable. By the way, the son of Henry II, Richard, made such a promise even earlier. But it was not so easy ...
In theory, if the Baron, the Count and others went on a crusade, their vassals and neighbors did not have the right to raid them.In the case, of course, the neighbors scored this ban. After all, who is stronger and is nearby, he is right.
Richard, who would later become the Lionheart, encountered this first. The Aquitaine vassals supported by the count of Toulouse rebelled against him. At the same time, Richard did not doubt that in fact the whole show was arranged by his own father. Such romantic relationships were in the family of Plantagenets.
Therefore, instead of a crusade, Richard went to pacify the vassals. In the war he fought, regardless of the interests of the kings of England and France, which, of course, did not please either old Heinrich or young Philip.
Civil strife was stopped by the Pope of Rome, who had to send an army east. In November 1188, Henry II, Philip II and Richard gathered to sign peace. By that time, Richard and Philip agreed, although in fact Philip, with a sly hand, had already moved his troops into Aquitaine. And he prepared a trap for the English king.
At the talks, he asked Heinrich to give Richard Poitou, Touraine and Anjou and confirm that the rights to the English crown belong to him. To this Henry responded harshly: “If common sense has not left me, it’s not today that he will receive this gift.”Richard freaked out and immediately revealingly brought the French king homage to Normandy, Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, Berry and Toulouse, asking him to protect his rights.
Instead of a crusade, the war of his son against his father began. Well, the French king skillfully warmed his hands on this. Philip and Richard seized the city, until Heinrich finally resigned and asked for peace, agreeing to bend under the demands of the young wolves. Heinrich recognized all that was demanded of him, including Richard made heir of his possessions in England, Normandy and Anjou. In addition, they demanded an oath from Heinrich that he would not take revenge on those who had betrayed him. And when he was handed a list, in the first place among the traitors stood the name of that son, whom he hoped for and loved most of all - Prince John (or, if you will, John), who would later be called Landless.
This finally bent the old king, and on July 6, 1189, Henry II Plantagenet, the owner of the great Anjou state, died. Richard I became king. Finally, the Crusade camp began, in which the friends Philip and Richard would quarrel forever and get a crush ... But that’s another story.