The shooting of the royal family: why did it happen
After the shooting on the night of July 16 to July 17, 1918, the bodies of the royal family members and their confidants (11 people in total) were loaded into a car and sent in the direction of Verkh-Isetsk to the abandoned mines of Ganina Yama. At first they tried to burn the victims, unsuccessfully, to burn them, then threw them into the shaft of the mine and showered them with branches.
Detection of remains
However, the next day, almost the entire Verkh-Isetsk knew about what had happened. In addition, according to a participant in the firing squad of Medvedev, “the ice-cold water of the mine not only washed the blood clean, but it froze the bodies so much that they looked like they were alive”. The conspiracy clearly failed.
The remains were quickly reburied. The area was cordoned off, but the truck, having driven only a few kilometers, got stuck in the Porosenkov log swamp area. Without becoming anything to invent, one part of the bodies was buried right under the road, and the other - a little to the side, pre-filled with sulfuric acid. From above for reliability put cross ties.
Interestingly, the judicial investigator N. Sokolov, directed by Kolchak in 1919 in search of burial, found this place, but he didn’t have a chance to pick up the sleepers. In the area of Ganina Yama, he managed to find only a severed female finger. Nevertheless, the investigator’s conclusion was unequivocal: “That's all that remains of the August Family. Everything else was destroyed by the Bolsheviks with the help of fire and sulfuric acid. "
Nine years later, perhaps, the Piglet Log was visited by Vladimir Mayakovsky, which can be judged by his poem “The Emperor”: “Here the cedar is overclocked with an ax, the notches under the root of the bark, at the root under the cedar, and the emperor is buried”.
It is known that the poet shortly before the trip to Sverdlovsk met in Warsaw with one of the organizers of the shooting of the royal family Peter Voykov, who could show him the exact place.
Urals historians found the remains in the Pig Log Log in 1978, but permission to excavate was obtained only in 1991. There were 9 bodies in the burial. During the investigation, part of the remains was recognized as “royal”: according to the experts, only Alexey and Maria were missing. However, many experts were confused by the results of the examination, and therefore no one was in a hurry to agree with the conclusions.The House of the Romanovs and the Russian Orthodox Church refused to recognize the authentic remains.
Aleksei and Maria were discovered only in 2007, guided by a document compiled from the words of Yakov Yurovsky, the commandant of the “Special Purpose House”. "Note Yurovsky" initially did not cause much confidence, however, the place of the second burial was indicated in it correctly.
Falsifications and myths
Immediately after the shooting, representatives of the new government tried to convince the West that members of the imperial family, or at least the children, were alive and in a safe place. The People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs G.V. Chicherin in April 1922, at the Genoa Conference, answered a question from one of the correspondents about the fate of the Grand Duchess: “I don’t know the fate of the king’s daughters. I read in the newspapers as if they were in America. ”
However, P.L. Voikov, in an informal setting, stated more specifically: “the world will never know what we have done to the royal family.” But later after the publication of materials from the investigation of Sokolov in the West, the Soviet authorities recognized the fact of the execution of the imperial family.
Falsifications and speculations around the execution of the Romanovs contributed to the spread of stable myths, among which the myth of ritual murder and the severed head of Nicholas II was popular.located in the special security of the NKVD. Later, stories about the “miraculous salvation” of the tsar's children, Aleksei and Anastasia, were added to the myths. But all this remains a myth.
Investigation and expertise
In 1993, the management of the investigation into the discovery of the remains was entrusted to the investigator of the Prosecutor General Vladimir Solovyov. Considering the importance of the case, in addition to traditional ballistic and macroscopic examinations, additional genetic studies were carried out in collaboration with British and American scientists.
For these purposes, some relatives of the Romanovs living in England and Greece took blood for analysis. The results showed that the probability of belonging of the remains to members of the royal family was 98.5 percent. The investigation considered this insufficient. Solovyov managed to obtain permission for the exhumation of the remains of the Tsar’s brother, George. Scientists confirmed the "absolute positional similarity of mt-DNA" of both remains, which revealed a rare genetic mutation inherent in the Romanovs - heteroplasmia.
However, after the discovery in 2007 of the alleged remains of Alexei and Maria, new research and expertise were required.The work of the scientist was greatly facilitated by Alexy II, who, before the burial of the first group of royal remains in the tomb of the Peter and Paul Cathedral, asked the investigators to remove particles of bone. “Science is developing, it is possible that they will be needed in the future,” such were the words of the Patriarch.
To remove skeptic doubts for new examinations, Evgeny Rogayev, head of the Molecular Genetics Laboratory at the University of Massachusetts, was invited (insisted by representatives of the House of Romanov), Chief Geneticist of the US Army Michael Cobble (who returned the names to the victims of September 11), and also an employee of the Austrian Institute of Forensic Medicine from Austria Walter Parson.
Comparing the remains of the two graves, the experts once again checked the previously obtained data, as well as conducted new studies - the previous results were confirmed. Moreover, the “blood-spattered shirt” of Nicholas II (the incident in Otsu), found in the Hermitage funds, fell into the hands of scientists. And again, a positive answer: the king’s genotypes “on blood” and “on bone” coincided.
The results of the investigation into the shooting of the royal family refuted some pre-existing assumptions.For example, according to experts, "under the conditions in which the destruction of corpses was carried out, it was impossible to completely destroy the remains using sulfuric acid and combustible materials."
This fact excludes Ganin Yama as the place of final burial. True, historian Vadim Wiener finds a serious gap in the conclusions of the investigation. He believes that some of the finds belonging to a later time, in particular coins of the 30s, were not taken into account. But as the facts show, information about the burial site very quickly “leaked” to the masses, and therefore the repository could repeatedly be uncovered in search of possible values.
Another revelation is offered by the historian S. A. Belyaev, who believes that “with imperial honors they could bury the family of the Yekaterinburg merchant”, although without providing any convincing arguments. However, the conclusions of the investigation, which was carried out with unprecedented scrupulousness using the latest methods, with the participation of independent experts are unambiguous: all 11 remains clearly correlate with each of the people shot in Ipatiev’s house.
Common sense and logic suggest that it is not possible to randomly duplicate similar physical and genetic correspondences.
In December 2010, a final conference was held in Yekaterinburg devoted to the latest examination results. Reports were made by 4 groups of geneticists who worked independently in different countries. Opponents of the official version could have expressed their views, but according to eyewitness testimony, “after listening to the reports they left the hall without a word”.
The Russian Orthodox Church still does not recognize the authenticity of the “Yekaterinburg remains”, but many representatives of the House of Romanov, judging by their statements in the press, accepted the final results of the investigation.