Two demo rooms in the Moscow region
I wrote about space technology museums more than once or twice this year - they permeated my entire space program, because where else on Earth will you see technology created to work outside its borders? I even managed to write an overview of space museums, their typical exhibits and unique relics, but over the next couple of months I was in several places with which I could add it. And before starting the story about Baikonur, the New Silk Road near which I showed in the last part, I will deal with the debts near Moscow. Today we will go to two showrooms, where it is not smelling like museum dust, but with a working iron. One is in the “space capital” of Korolyov at the Energia plant, the other is on the outskirts of Dmitrov Orevo, at the Moscow Bauman Moscow State Technical University.
Still, Korolev is truly the space capital of Russia. For six months in this topic I drove through it five times, I was directly in the city three times and twice on the territory of Energia, that is, the former OKB-1 Sergey Korolev.Just by looking at the map, you can see that the objects of the Near Space of Moscow are not grouped around the capital itself, but around its Sputnik city, diverging in all directions with a fan. Peresvet in the north of Korolev, Shchelkovo and Star City from the east, Khimki and Tushino from the west, and two beams go to the south - Reutov, Lyubertsy and Dzerzhinsky strung to the south, and VDNKh, Roscosmos and Space Research Institute. Between these two rays is still Baumanka and a whole scattering of space plants, and only Khrunichev Center proudly stands apart. And although they don’t walk around Korolev in spacesuits and satellites between high-rise buildings do not fly it, the whole city is covered with such graffiti:
I told about Korolev as a city in three parts (General about the city || Podlipki and the Jubilee || Kostino, Bolshevo, Pervomayka.). But the fourth one was the main one - about RSC Energia and TsNIIMash, that is, the heart and brain of the national astronautics. The history of these enterprises and the history of the industry - in essence, the same thing, and the main designer of the OKB-1, later TsKBM, later "Energia", was traditionally ours and the Chief in Cosmos. Industrial Zone "Energy", which attracts the eye with replicas of rockets and spacecraft,Korolev separates from the Yaroslavl highway, and on the facade of its luxurious building - either bought back in 1914 by the Becos military factory Belaya Dacha of the Perlovy merchants (1907), or post-plant from scratch factory management (1924). Anyway, this is the facade, but the main gate is exactly opposite, but from the side of the city. And I passed it with the excursion group twice - because there are two museums in the factory at once, and a certain unwritten rule does not order them to visit on the same day. Or rather, two different Energia officially live here - a rocket and space corporation and an experimental engineering plant. ZEM is the head office of RKK, but the press services are different, and when I called the RSC Energia museum in February, they diligently pretended that nobody knew anything about the ZEM Energia showroom. The Energia Museum is one of the most accessible and open among departmental ones, the excursion there is not free, but the reception of groups, including teams, is put on stream. Demersal "Energia" - on the contrary, is very difficult to access, and I could not find approaches to it. But it was possible for people from the community of “Your sector of the cosmos”, and the places on the tour were dismantled in a matter of hours.
The spacecraft plant site has a very recognizable skyline — the spire of the White Dacha, the heads of two rockets, a bundle of pipes of the factory heat and power plant (working for the city), and - a tall building with a characteristic ornament under the roof. The “golden age” of the national cosmonautics fell on the Khrushchev era, therefore it practically left no trace in the architectural heritage. Built in 1955-57 for installation of the R-7 missiles in an upright position, the Tall Building is perhaps the brightest monument to the "space architecture" of the USSR. By appointment, he served from the force of a year and a half: all five Sputnik missiles were assembled here, the first Vostoki and Luna, but during 1958 their production all moved intensively to Kuybyshev (Samara) to the Progress plant, which became home for 99% of the “sevens” - the majority of the “Vostok”, all the “Voskhodov”, the “Lightning”, the modern “Unions” and the archaic military modifications of these missiles. Sergey Korolev willingly distributed to other enterprises the production of rockets, satellites and unmanned spacecraft, and for the assembly of manned spacecraft such a huge room was simply not required. Therefore, the High Corps soon became a dormitory, and Alexander Shaenko, the designer of the Mayak nanosatellite and the 435nm bioreactor, aptly called this place the Temple of Astronautics:
The main trick of visiting a demozal was that the group was first recruited here, and only then the date was set for the excursion. We didn’t go from the familiar entrance to the left, where the museum is, and to the right - to the High Building, but with the same narrow, clean and extremely busy streets of the country's main space plant. Inhuman efforts I had to keep my hands in my pockets, and the camera in my bag - my eyes darted away from the rockets-monuments, the wagons of unusual shapes on the tracks, scooters of local construction scattered here and there and the preserved Becos buildings. In a small lobby with a wardrobe, we were met by a tour guide and a young employee of Energia. The latter was also an excursionist, and, in principle, halls and departmental museums exist primarily for young employees and all kinds of business delegations, and only then for schoolchildren and students, that is, candidates for a device to the industry. From the lobby, we passed into the hall itself, and here it is difficult not to follow the advice from the Rokosmos slogan - “Lift your head!”. The tall building is really tall - up to the ceiling there are 53 meters:
And on the wall fell parachutist:
Since the dump room belongs to the plant within its site, a couple of exhibits of the species are not at all space-like at the entrance. I often wrote that cosmonautics split off from aviation, but it also had another ancestor - artillery, for which the first experiments with rockets began. If fate were different, Korolev (then the remaining Kaliningrad or Podlichkami) would be the “capital” of anti-aircraft guns and guns. In the years 1914-16, the British firm Becos, after buying land from local dachas, began building a plant to supply its largest ally with modern cannons. In 1919, the plant was nationalized and merged with the Arsenal evacuated from Petrograd to the Moscow Gunnery, which soon became the Kalinin Plant - so the city under the Soviets was Kaliningrad. Since 1937, the plant design bureau was headed by Mikhail Loginov, and since 1942 Vasily Grabin - both of them were the largest designers of anti-aircraft guns and anti-tank guns in the early Soviet Union. Even when in 1946 most of the site was given to missilemen, gunners like NII-58 continued to occupy the second site behind the railroad. Finally Korolev ousted Grabin from here in 1950.Here, from right to left, the local guns of different epochs: the Loginovskaya 61-K anti-aircraft gun (1939), the ZIS-2 and ZIS-3 anti-tank guns of Grabin (1942-43) and the latest development of the NII-58 in this area - the S-60A anti-aircraft gun ), mass-produced already in Krasnoyarsk and Gorky.
The first products of the new plant life are on the other side of the hall. In the 1920s, two countries that experimented with rockets, the losers of the First World War — Germany and the USSR — experimented most actively. In the 1930s, the Germans took a step forward, and the aristocrat Werner von Braun, for the sake of his great cause, who went to cooperate with Nazism, created the V-2, the common ancestor of all ballistic missiles of mankind. Its fuel was alcohol and liquid oxygen, a rocket 14 meters long carried a warhead per ton weighing up to 320 kilometers. The percentage of V2 failures at the start was close to half, and the accuracy was such that the production of these missiles by slaves at an underground factory killed more people than the application - of course in England. But it was the V-2 that became the first terrestrial object to ascend into space - in one of the experiments the Germans launched it vertically upwards, and it climbed 188 kilometers. The potential of heavy rockets was understood on both sides of the Atlantic,and if the Americans ended up with a staff of designers led by von Braun himself, then the Soviets got the Peenemünde Rocket Center and 11 large fragments of the V-2 at various stages of readiness, which Korolyov and his comrades began to develop using reverse engineering. A lot of authentic "V-2" has been preserved in Western Europe and America, and we, according to rumors, have one lying around here. In fact, all 11 German products were "developed" without a trace, if anything survived, then in some deaf arsenals. Here - P-1, or "Volga": albeit an exact copy of the "V-2" inside and outside, and the assembly from the beginning to the end of the Soviet. Moreover, compared with the original, it was slightly weaker - during the tests at Kapustin Yar, the maximum range of its flight was only 270 kilometers. Next to it, in a typical checkered pattern, the P-2, the first completely original Soviet rocket, the first launch of which took place in September 1949. With a length of 18 meters, it became the first rocket in the world with a detachable warhead, and the same ton of weight could have been thrown twice as far - up to 576 kilometers in trials.
And in general, the most entertaining part of dezal is a whole battery of rockets, standing in a huge room in full growth.Here on the left is a pair of R-5 (1955), which have already struck 1,200 kilometers, including the R-5M, the first nuclear missile of the USSR, which in 1956 was squeezed to 80 kilotons in the sands of the Aral Sea. A form of the formidable in the middle is already an intercontinental R-9 with a range of 16,000 kilometers, which was on combat duty in 1964-71.
And next to it is the apotheosis of the GR-1 missile weapons. That is, the “global rocket”, which placed into orbit the real “space brander”, whose descent module replaced the atomic bomb capable of hitting the target anywhere on the planet. Similar developments were being made by the Americans, and sometimes two superpowers were openly afraid of their power - in 1964, politicians preferred to sign an agreement banning nuclear weapons in space. As I understand it, the GR-1 and the last in a row - it did not even fit into the tall building at full length, therefore, in both copies there are two steps out of three. And between them - a pair of solid-fuel missiles RT-1 and RT-2. The first was tested during the life of Korolev, but 2/3 of her launches were unsuccessful, but the second was really in service in 1969-94. And at the foot - the spaceship Vostok, like the one that Gagarin flew.
But the main product of the RSC Energia (in all its previous guises) is the R-7 rocket, in the Sputnik version, which opened the space age,in the Vostok modification, he lifted Gagarin into space, and in the Soyuz-FG modification 10 days ago, he took off from Baikonur 10 days ago, strangely enough, no. Is that a small fragment of its central stage, which is apart from everything else and does not recognize:
Other elements of the "sevens" are in the frame below on the right: the RD-107 engine and the upper stage "E" with a Voronezh engine, the third stage of the rocket, which was activated in outer space. He strengthened the rocket so much that in 1959 he allowed to send a light unmanned vehicle to the moon, and in 1961 - to bring a heavy spacecraft with a man. On the frame above, the more advanced DM unit and its multiple-start engine, created for manned mission to the moon. It was designed only for 3 inclusions, while the modern “Frigate” - for dozens.
Fuel tanks of rockets themselves are similar to cosmic bodies:
The instrument compartment of the upper stage Zenith rocket launcher in the Land Launch version. Cosmonautics experts always speak about Zenith with a gasp - created in the 1980s, he became a masterpiece of Soviet rocketry ... and a source of inspiration for Ilon Mask, who essentially created the Falcon-9 in the 21st century .The trouble with “Zenith” was only one: the rocket itself is made by the Dnieper “Yuzhmash”, but many of its important elements - plants in Russia. "Zenith" were launched from Baikonur ("Land Launch") and a unique floating cosmodrome ("Sea Launch"), but 2014, it seems, finally put an end to them. Alas, by virtue of Ukrainian origin and relative youth, Zenit in Russia is hardly represented even in museums.
“Zenith” was planned to bring even to reusability, and they also served as side units of “Energy” - the second in the history and the first in the USSR super-heavy rocket. Here is a pair of engines of its central unit - on the left Voronezh RD-0120 on liquid hydrogen (the most efficient, but very capricious fuel) for the second stage, on the right RD-170 is the most powerful rocket engine in history, tearing several thousand tons from Earth. In units of measurement that are understandable to the philistine, there are 20,000,000 horsepower, which is comparable to the largest hydroelectric power stations on the planet or power plants of the whole fleet.
"Energy" is scattered throughout the dumps plant named after himself. In the museum at the other end of the enterprise, I talked in more detail about H1, the first Soviet super-heavy rocket created in the 1960s to conquer the moon.Sergey Korolev and Valentin Glushko, that is, the Chief and Chief Engineers, argued about its concept for a long time and eventually quarreled mortally, and very simply speaking, the question was whether to put one super-powered engine on the rocket (which still had to be created) or a lot of small ones. In the end, of course, Korolev won with the second option, and maybe he himself would even be able to bring the H1 to mind ... but the Chief died, and his rocket about 34 engines could not even go beyond the atmosphere. In 1974, Valentin Glushko, who had been working in the industry since the 1920s, headed the CB of his late rival, and the turn of his ideas came in the space program. In 1976 TsKBM received its current name "Energy" and began the development of the eponymous rocket. Here is one of the technological models of "Energy" with "Buran" on its back:
Around the Kvant module from the Mir station are other fragments of the project, such as head fairings of the side steps. A modular scheme became revolutionary in Energia: not only was Zenith an independent rocket, around the thick body of Energia they could be hung as much as you like. In the basic configuration with 4 Zenits, Energia raised to 120 tons, becoming the second most powerful rocket in history, but with 8 Zenits it turned into Vulcan,into the Earth's orbit, capable of leading up to 200 tons or sending a not so heavy manned expedition to Mars.
But the main load for "Energy" was conceived "Buran". If the “Shuttle” was itself a super-heavy rocket with a pair of solid-fuel boosters, then the “Buran” in the “Energia” worked out only as a third step. But it was much more intelligent and maneuverable, and in many museums you can see its small shunting engines. And here is the main engine of the Buran, which brought it into orbit:
And power supply systems:
Glushko, creating his masterpiece, died in 1989, and most likely died a happy man: he gave the industry 60 years, from its inception to its highest point. A little bit more, it seemed, and it would be close to Mars, and new plants for the benefit of communist humanity would grow on the moon and orbit. But Energia flew only twice, in 1987 and 1988, and with the collapse of the USSR, in a sharply shrunk space of possibilities, it suddenly turned out that there was nothing to carry on it now. Only the accumulated experience had evaporated like liquid hydrogen from tanks, but perhaps the most fatal for Energia was the collapse of all-union cooperation. One of the corners of the room was collected monuments of unfulfilled hopes - a huge, like a tower, Energia fuel tank from Dnepropetrovsk:
Here it is from the inside.And in front of the tank, on the frame above - "Lunnik" from much earlier eras:
Which was supposed to be a payload for the H1 - for the flight to the Moon, the USSR was prepared for almost everything, except for the launch vehicle itself. H1 put into space L3 - a spacecraft consisting of the "Union" (for the Moon, in fact, and developed) and "Lunnik". The scheme was the same as that of the Americans - reaching the lunar orbit, the first remained there, and the second sat on the surface of the Moon, and the characteristic "spider" from the frame above on the one hand served as a landing platform, and on the other - as a launching table: the astronaut returned to his ball, took off to the lunar orbit and there joined the Soyuz, which was heading for Earth.
But only H1 was almost twice as weak as the Saturn-5, and therefore the Apollo was carrying three pilots, while the Soyuz was designed for two. The Americans had one astronaut on duty in orbit, while two men landed on the moon, but the Soviet landing project leaves me with an impression of cold horror — at their few hours of work on the moon, the astronaut would be the only person on the whole planet, although he loomed in front of him blue earth.There was no question, of course, about all sorts of lunar rovers and diurnal landings - most likely, even if H1 had taken off, the Soviet lunar program would have been enough only to put a red flag a month earlier than a star-striped. Household compartment "Lunnik" and the command compartment of the lunar "Union":
However, the essence of space programs with their "infinite, but not endless" budgets and millions of years of work - not in the proclaimed goal, but in numerous side effects from intermediate steps. So, it was the Moon program that gave us the Soyuz, which by 2010 remained the only manned spacecraft of the Earth. Of course, the dumped Energia did not go without its descent vehicle — fortunately, such people have already descended to Earth 135 times, steadily settling in museums. Specifically here - the Soyuz TM-14. Alexandrov Victorenko and Kaleri, who in 1992 made the first flight not from the USSR, but from the Russian Federation. The orbital "Unions", in contrast to the lunar, were triple, and the third in the crew was a German from the united Germany Klaus-Dietrich Flade.
On the right on the frame above a couple of years ago there was the Clipper (or rather, its prototype mock-up) - a rocket plane of the 21st century, a sort of mini-Buranchik, developed by Energia with its own funds in the 2000s.But the time of the rocket planes was gone, and since 2011 even the Shuttles haven’t been flying, and the new spacecraft, which is currently working in America, turned out to be much closer in concept to the good old Soyuz and Gemini. "Clipper" went to Sochi to the educational center "Sirius", and in its place is now flaunted another promising development - the "Federation". The name clearly hints at the Soyuz, but only the new ship should be reusable, accommodate a crew of up to 6 people and have autonomy, designed for flights to the Moon and Mars. In the near-cosmic circles, the Federation was long ago buried, but just recently I was at a lecture by a participial engineer, and the engineer didn’t care about the entire informational background and political context - he was just passionate about his work. By the way, the e-filling of the "Federation" is all Russian, and this is an important point: Russia’s Large Space Program is not needed for the sake of abstract apple trees on Mars, but for the technologies that remain on Earth.
In the center of the hall there is his pride, the life-size orbital station Salyut, on board of which they shot the famous science fiction film Salyut-7.Spaceships docked to it from two sides are different: on the right are Soyuz, on the left the cargo Progress, which is characterized by the absence of a characteristic neck, instead of the household and command compartments in it, a solid cargo compartment. Here, the orange docking module of the “World” and behind the scenes the already familiar “Kvant” ... but the topic of orbital stations, as in other museums, will be reserved for a separate post.
In addition to rockets, spaceships and engines, an indescribable set of not-so-large exhibits — all kinds of parts and components, which lie here mainly for the employees of the enterprise, are also represented in the demi-vale.
Here, for example, a whole showcase of valves:
Not only metal, but also composites:
The same electronics, the modernization of which Russia is so desperately needed:
But in terms of life support systems in space, we are still ahead of the rest. They are mainly produced at the Zvezda plant in Lyubertsy, but Energia itself does something:
Space technology materials, primarily heat-resistant coatings that need to be kept thousands of degrees - even in the engine chamber, even on the skin in the atmosphere:
Solar panels - having walked through space museums, I was impressed with how different they are.Next - also theoretically stands on non-volatility in space. In addition to solar batteries and RTGs, there are also very exotic developments - for example, the receiving battery, to which a powerful microwave beam continuously transfers energy from the Earth.
And in the corner - a lonely heavy satellite the size of a room in a city apartment. The small production of Energia satellites has retained, but specifically this device is an example of Russian private astronautics. Well, how private ... This is the Yamal-200 from the satellite group of Gazprom, and Gazprom is so powerful that, with the support of Energia, it built a small assembly plant in neighboring Schelkovo with its own MCC. The gas workers ordered their last Yamal-401 from France, but the original Yamal-100 and Yamal-200 in 2003 did just “Energy”, and these were the first Russian satellites of the new generation, designed for 12 -15 years of work.
In the background - electric scooters. Some space enterprises have some kind of "earthly" production, and for example, Progress motor boats from Samara are also called this way not at all by accident. So these machines from the frame above, I have not seen anywhere outside the "Energy", but in its territory from shop to shop they are worn in packs. They also make gas bottles, water filters like something that you probably have in your kitchen ...
And, suddenly, medical prostheses. Along the showcases with which, after spending more than 3 hours instead of the two planned ones in the hall, we reached for the exit.
On the territory of "Energia" there is, perhaps, the best museum complex of the national cosmonautics, and from them there is less than a kilometer from the museum TsNIIMash, dedicated mainly to the creation of space ships. And in a good way to combine their visits into one excursion and simplify the visiting regime, but ... So far, each post about the Energy Hall is akin to an exclusive.
In addition to demozal, on that visit I went to the entrance of the Second Energia site, where until 1950 the Grabin Design Office worked. The building next to the entrance hall is the academic building of the faculty of rocket and space technology of MSTU. Bauman. Baumanka (see here) is not in vain considered to be the reference higher education institution of cosmonautics - its objects literally permeate the “space” cities of the Moscow region:
Therefore, in order not to get up twice, from Korolev we will go to the epic that is far from MoscowDmitrovabout which I will tell you separately, and most likely in two parts:
Because the second facet of this very distinctive town against the background of the general Moscow region's facelessness is the Moscow Canal: here was the center of the GULagovskaya construction, its leadership worked and lived.I already showed one end of the channel in Tushino, where they collected Buran, the other end - in Dubna, this showcase of the Soviet nuclear project, and Dmitrov - somewhere between them.
Just north of Dmitrov, at the underwater gates No. 103, four sculptures seem to play volleyball across the riverbed. They mark a suburb with a strange name.Orevo:
And the train from the Savyolovsky station in the last days of May early in the morning was full of children in glasses and a soldier's uniform, listening to the conversations of which, I realized that they were students of the military department of MSTU. Theoretically, almost a thousand people live in Orev, but “by eye” is not a village, but naturally another Baumanka campus in the middle of forests and swamps:
By default, Orevo is the Dmitrovsky branch of MSTU, founded in 1965. Her corps are met slightly off the canal, and all connoisseurs of the space theme know that somewhere out there, behind these gates, Baumanka hides her Secret Hangar: demuzal of the “Booster and Spacecraft” department. Since there are many students at MSTU, the very existence of this place is quite widely known, but interns are taken there without cameras, and for outsiders Bauman opens the Secret Hangar extremely reluctantly, perhaps a couple of times a year taking excursions from the Summer Space School.If I did at least some unsuccessful actions with the “Energy” dump hall, I didn’t even plan to go here. But somehow, in May, I was suddenly invited there on a tour by all the same people from "Your Sector of the Cosmos". And at the appointed time, we gathered at the entrance:
Damsal is adjacent to the parade ground of the military department, and through the small foyer we went through an inconspicuous door. Behind the door I met the same as in Energia, the smell of a working metal and such a surreal look — the desks under the rocket nozzles:
It goes without saying that Gennady Georgievich Kulish, the head of the laboratory in the Dmitrov branch, gave us a tour. I think if I were a student of this department, I would look forward to his lectures, for Gennady Georgievich would tell really great: as many as brief and succinct about subtleties - but absolutely understandable, and always - with healthy technical humor.
Because it is from the subtleties of the exhibition Orevskogo demalzal and consists. The rocket at the entrance is the same R-7, which is not enough in the Energy hall, and not the “Soyuz”, not the “East” and not the “Sputnik”, but simply the “seven” in its pure form, which it created in 1957 Sergey Korolev and Dmitry Kozlov. I don’t really understand how it was placed in the building - it seems that it was built around the exhibits:
Another group of desks is right under the rocket. It feels like the exhibits are still smaller here than in Energia, but not by much: they are incredibly tightly arranged, so that two different rockets can be touched with both hands at the same time. The phenomenon of the Secret Angar is that it is not related to a specific plant and shows here what it would not have shown in museums, so a meter apart from each other are products of designers and enterprises from all over the former USSR - Korolev, Samara, Khimki, Reutov, Dnepropetrovsk, Miass, Voronezh. Or in another way: Sergey Korolev, Vladimir Chelomey, Valentin Glushko, Mikhail Yangel, Victor Makeev, Semyon Lavochkin, Semyon Kosberg, Alexander Nadiradze - the whole industry is in full view.
Yes, and in the section - after all, these rockets serve as visual aids for students, and many of their parts, in other museums, acquaintances separately, can be seen here in integrity. In many museums, the RD-107 is presented - and this is how it sits inside a rocket:
And in general, about Orevo, I could write a separate post, especially since there is a lot of this, which is not in other museums. For example, all the rockets here are represented by prototypes: not the Vostok, but the P-7, not the Proton, but the Ur-500, not the Zenith, but the P-26 and others.At the far end of the room there is a solid fuel angle: I think if you read my entire “space” series, you noticed a couple of paragraphs above the unfamiliar name Alexander Nadiradze. Georgian from Gori, he went quite typical way from aircraft designer to rocket, first engaged in solid-fuel engines under Chelomey, and in 1958 headed the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering, whose streamlined name very transparently hints at the defense essence. Nadiradze’s missiles did not figure in my past posts simply because they were all purely military. A solid fuel engine is much simpler than a liquid engine, it does not have all these sophisticated pumps and hoses, but only in the combustion chamber there is a flammable bomb. It does not require replacement and refueling, will not spill and will not light up accidentally, but by itself it is a work of technical art: the main feature of it must be absolutely uniform burning, because the slightest flash or weakening is fraught with loss of controllability. In Orevo there are several solid-propellant rockets and engines contrary to each other, and in one of them - the piece itself. Solid fuel is gray, like metal, and solid, like Japanese plastic,in appearance it is difficult to imagine that such a substance can burn - and only an unpleasant itching in the hand, with which I touched the piece, reminded me that this substance is aggressive. And in general, it is probably the solid fuel angle that became the main impression of Orevsky dezal, but ....
... but in the frame above - the shells of spacecraft. Having accepted the group, the responsible persons from MSTU showed confidence in us, allowing in the hall to freely take pictures for memory. But warned that the photos of most of the exhibits can not be published, and this is especially true of the most unusual - the rockets in the section and all the solid propellant. In principle, there were also guests here who were more fortunate - that is why there are photographs of many Orev exhibits here, for example. But due to the extreme specificity of Orev, virtual excursions on it are practically meaningless - here it is necessary to go with the teacher and pay attention to those nuances that I myself would not have noticed. Orevo - as an anatomical theater of rocket and space technology:
The most free to photograph here is the department of spacecraft. On the frame above, the rear is the P-2, the oldest exhibit of the museum, and the P-26 is the prototype of the Zenith.But the sharp capsule in the foreground was the head of the P-1 and P-2 in the 1940s. In essence, this was what the first earthlings of earthlings looked like, flying only with a "grasshopper jump" into suborbital flights. And it was on such a July 22, 1951 that the Gypsy and Dezik dogs jumped 101 kilometers from Kapustin Yar - the first living creatures that were outside the Earth. And here is another “Lunnik” - all of these are prototype prototypes at various stages of development, and by the way, you can see them not only in departmental museums: one of the “Lunists” from the recent ones is exhibited in “Patriot” park.
The “union” of three compartments is on the left instrument-unit, on the right is command and household, and in theory the second two should stand on the first, but then it would be inconvenient to show them:
The cabin of the Soyuz is detailed like in Star City - they are taught to control such people, and here they are to build such ones. The cab is very much loved by students, who sometimes penetrate demersal secretly in order to take a picture of it. And then Gennady Georgievich finds traces of someone's clumsiness on the instruments.
You can look into the household compartment:
A sleek, like a wooden descent vehicle side by side is Orev’s main historical relic.He was in space, but in some! This is not “Soyuz”, but “Zond” - an unmanned vehicle created on its basis for flying around the moon during the preparation of the Soviet lunar program. The overwhelming majority of the Zond launches were unsuccessful, and although it was planned that one of them would be manned, the percentage of explosions at the start and conclusions to a untargeted orbit turned out to be unacceptable. In fact, out of 14 Probes, only 3 have successfully worked, and in the museum (not a hall!) I showed Zond-5, which rolled two turtles around the Moon, and Zond-7, whose mission is almost one million long, is stored here. kilometers was the most complete.
On which I will finish the story, although as already mentioned, Orevo still has a lot of interesting things.
In the next part we will go to another Temple of Astronautics, this time publicly available - the pavilion "Cosmos" at the Exhibition of Economic Achievements.
My space program. Table of contents.