Types of hormones and their functions
The article will talk about the types of hormones, as well as we consider what they are and what functions they perform. After reading you will learn to understand this issue and understand the effect of hormones on human life and health.
What is it about?
What are hormones? These are substances that are produced by certain cells of the body in the endocrine glands. They enter the bloodstream and, thus, have a strong influence on the physiological processes and metabolism. In fact, these substances are the regulators of most phenomena occurring in the human body.
Before we talk about the types of gomons, let's talk about the history of the discovery of these important substances. The study of them and the endocrine glands was begun by doctor T. Addison in 1855. Another scientist who began the study of endocrinology is considered to be a Frenchman K. Bernard. Later, this industry was studied in detail by S. Brown-Sekar, who identified the relationship between diseases and insufficiency of certain glands. It is proved that various methods and types of action of hormones can actually influence the state of health.
Modern studies confirm that too active or passive work of the glands negatively affects human health and causes diseases. For the first time the term "hormone" was used in the writings of physiologists E. Starling and W. Beiliss in 1902.
Any external or internal stimuli affect the receptors of the body and cause impulses that are transmitted to the central nervous system, and then to the hypothalamus. It is there that produced the active substances that are transported to the pituitary gland. They contribute to faster or slower production of tropic hormones, on which the synthesis of the desired compounds depends. After that, the substance is transported to the body's organ or tissue through the circulatory system. This causes certain chemical or physiological reactions in the body.
Types of human hormones
What are the varieties of these substances? Despite the fact that modern science has sufficient information about the chemical composition of each hormone, their classification is still not considered complete. Verbose hormone can be based on its structure or chemical name, but the result will be a large and difficult to remember word.That is why scientists tacitly agreed to use more simple names.
The most popular is the anatomical classification, which relates the substance to the gland in which it is produced. According to this criterion, hormones of the adrenal glands, pituitary, hypothalamus, etc., are released. But this classification is not particularly reliable since the compound can be synthesized in one gland, but completely different is released into the blood.
Because of this, scientists decided to develop a single system that would be based on the chemical composition of the active substances. That is why in the modern world hormones are divided into:
- amino acid derivatives;
- arbitrary polyunsaturated fatty acids;
Steroid hormones are substances of a lipid nature that have a sterane core. They are synthesized in the ovaries and testicles from cholesterol. Hormones of this type perform the most important functions necessary for the normal functioning of the human body. So, it depends on them the ability to give the body the necessary form, as well as reproduce offspring. This class includes androgen, progesterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol.
Derivatives of fatty acids can affect the cells of the organs that produce them. This class includes prostaglandins, thromboxanes, etc.
Amino acid derivatives are synthesized by several glands. The basis of their creation is tyrosine. This class includes melatonin, adrenaline, thyroxin and norepinephrine.
Protein-peptide compounds are responsible for the regulation of metabolism in the body. The most important element for their synthesis is protein. This group includes insulin and growth hormone.
We considered the main types of human hormones, but did not pay attention to their role. At the same time, the life course of a person cannot be imagined without these essential substances. They participate in every process that occurs in the body. So, thanks to hormones, each person has his own weight and height. The substances under discussion have a great influence on the emotional state, stimulate the natural processes of disintegration and cell growth.
In doing so, they are involved in stimulating or suppressing the immune system. Metabolism also directly depends on the level of certain hormones in the body.
Types of hormones in the body are different, but in women they are specific. An important substance for the weaker sex is estrogen, which is synthesized in the ovaries.Thanks to him, the menstrual cycle is regular. Also, this hormone causes the formation of secondary sexual characteristics. This substance during puberty allows the body to prepare for motherhood and future sexual life. Thanks to this substance, an adult woman preserves youth and beauty, a good condition of her skin and a positive attitude towards life. If estrogen is normal, then the woman feels good and very often looks younger than her peers, who have disrupted hormones.
Types of sex hormones are interesting in that they can trigger "natural" mechanisms. So, estrogen is responsible for women's feelings - to babysit with children and protect their home. But at the same time, we note that this substance has a calming effect. Therefore, it is taken by aggressive men in prisons. Also, such a hormone can improve memory. That is why women during menopause often begin to experience difficulty remembering. But a minus for many women of this hormone is that it forces the body to accumulate fat. It is necessary for women's health.
The second female hormone is progesterone.It contributes to the normal onset and course of pregnancy. It is produced by the adrenal glands and ovaries. It is also called the hormone of the parental instinct, since it is thanks to him that the woman is physiologically and psychologically preparing for motherhood. Interestingly, the level of this hormone in the blood rises at a time when she sees young children.
The next hormone we’ll look at is called prolactin. It is produced in the pituitary gland and is responsible for the growth and development of the mammary glands, the production of milk during the feeding period. Also, this hormone is called stress, as its amount increases with fatigue, physical exertion or psychological trauma.
Types of male hormones are few. The main one is testosterone, which is produced by the testes and adrenal glands. It is also called the hormone of aggression, as it forces a man to kill and hunt. Thanks to this substance, representatives of the strong half of humanity have an instinct to protect and provide for their home and family. In order for this hormone to be normal, a man needs regular exercise.During puberty, the level of this substance is greatly increased. Thanks to him, the beard grows in men, and the voice becomes low.
What other types of hormones exist? Thyroxin, thyreccalcitonin, triiodothyronin is produced by the thyroid gland. The first is responsible for the metabolism and excitability of the nervous system. Triiodothyronine is responsible for the same indicators as thyroxin, enhancing them. In this case, we note that the lack of thyroid hormones in childhood threatens to delay physical and mental development. In adults with hypofunction, lethargy, apathy and drowsiness are observed. With an excess of hormones, there is increased arousal and insomnia. And the last hormone, thyrocalcitonin. It is responsible for the exchange of calcium in the body, reducing its level in the blood and increasing in bone tissue.
The parathyroid glands also produce parathyrin, the level of which increases with a decrease in the level of calcium. We considered the types of hormones and their functions. Now you understand why the thyroid hormones are incredibly important for the body. It is no secret that this body is a real advocate.
Now we consider what kinds of hormones the pituitary gland produces. Growth hormone is somatotropin, which is responsible for the physical development and growth of the human body. It affects the increase in the size of the whole body, stimulates the muscles and at the same time prevents the deposition of fat. Moreover, if there is a lack of this hormone, then the person suffers from dwarfism, and otherwise - gigantism. At the same time, acromegaly may occur, which is characterized by an increased production of somatotropin in adulthood. Because of this, some parts of the body grow, but the bones may lose their ability to lengthen.
The next hormone we’ll consider is prolactin. We already spoke about it above, but we will repeat once again. It is responsible for lactation, the menstrual cycle and the mammary glands. The next pituitary hormone is thyrotropin. Its main task is to stimulate the synthesis of thyroxin. Another substance that we will consider is corticotropin, which stimulates the work of the adrenal glands and the formation of cortisol. However, an excess of this hormone can lead to Cushing's syndrome, which is characterized by fatty deposits in the upper part of the body, general weakness, and a lunar form of the face.
Gonadotropins stimulate the maturation and development of sperm and eggs. Oxytocin is responsible for the normal flow of labor, and also improves the general psychological state of a person. Vasopressin protects the body from moisture loss, sucking it into the kidneys and preserving. If the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is destroyed, then the person begins to have diabetes insipidus diabetes, which is characterized by the loss of huge amounts of water.
We considered almost all types of human hormones, except for substances of the pancreas. It produces glucagon, which increases the amount of glucose in the blood and promotes the breakdown of sugar. The pancreas also synthesizes insulin, which lowers blood sugar and promotes glucose in the cell, making it a “building material”. If the body lacks this compound, then a disease such as diabetes mellitus develops. The main symptoms are pruritus, excessive urination and great thirst. If the disease is not treated for a long time, it manifests itself in pain in the extremities, decreased appetite, visual impairment and even coma.
There are hormones that affect certain types of metabolism.These include substances that are produced in the adrenal glands. These are cortisol, adrenaline and aldosterone. The first hormone is produced in large quantities during a stressful situation. It activates the process of protection, the activity of the heart muscle and the brain. When the level of cortisol rises, increased fat deposition begins on the stomach, back and back of the neck. In this case, a strong decrease in the level of the hormone leads to a weakening of the immune system, and the person as a result of this often gets sick.
It is urgent to consult a doctor in such cases, as this can lead to adrenal failure. Adrenaline is a hormone that causes a sense of danger and fear.
In this case, the person increases blood sugar levels, breathing becomes faster, vascular tone increases. Thus, a person is prepared to the maximum for physical and mental stress. However, if this hormone is too much, then it can dull the fear, which is fraught with consequences. Aldosterone regulates water-salt balance. It affects the kidneys, giving them a signal about which substances should be left in the body and which should be removed.
We considered the types of male and female hormones, and now let's talk about the hormone of the pineal gland. It is melanin, which is responsible for the rhythms of the body, the sleep cycle and the deposition of fat. Also, everyone from school knows that this substance is responsible for the color of the skin and hair.
Hormone intake to achieve certain results
Now let's talk about the effects of hormones for beauty. Very often, women decide to take such a step in order to achieve certain results and change their appearance. But the fact is that you can take such substances only as directed by your doctor. In today's world, any information can be found on the Internet, so some girls decide to entrust their health and life to couch critics. Having read different opinions, they go to the pharmacy and buy drugs, which sometimes even lead to paralysis. In no case can this be done, since even a doctor cannot always objectively say whether a hormone is harmful or not.
Types of action of hormones are different, which is why if hormone therapy is needed, then you need to consult only with a qualified specialist who has been dealing with similar issues for a long time.And even so, it is difficult to say how the body will behave when exposed to certain substances. We must understand that our body is not a mechanism, but a living system that actively responds to stimuli.
We reviewed the types of female hormones. From this, many understood how important they are. However, these substances play a key role in the health of absolutely all people. Therefore, you need to know how to adjust the hormonal balance. It is quite simple to do this by adjusting your lifestyle.
Firstly, it is very important to observe the daily regimen. Only under this condition will the balance between rest and work be improved. For example, during sleep a person produces somatotropin. If you fall asleep every day at a completely different time, then this leads to a failure in the production of this substance. This is just one example, but it is clear how the day regimen affects the entire system.
It is also very important to stimulate the production of active substances through exercise. 2-3 times a week, be sure to do fitness or dancing. But equally important is a balanced diet, in which there should be enough protein.
A very important factor that is often forgotten is the drinking regime. For health, each person needs to drink about 2-2.5 liters of water per day. All this will allow to adjust hormonal balance. If such methods do not help, then intensive treatment is necessary. It is appointed by a professional who studies the hormone table and prescribes drugs that contain synthetic analogues of human hormones.