Types of speech activity - what is it?
Of all the living creatures that inhabit the Earth, in fact, only man is endowed with the thinking function and the function of speaking, communication — intelligent communication! Articulate, meaningful speech is a unique gift of nature to man. Naturally, these features have become the subject of careful study.
Speech as a language phenomenon
From the point of view of linguistics, the concept of speech activity can be defined as the use of language as a means of communication and to transmit information. This activity is divided into 2 types: alien speech and its perception, own speech and its creation. Both types can be presented in two forms - oral and written. All other people's speech activity and its types interact with such organs of our perception as hearing and sight, because we either read it or listen to it. To create their own statements, however, each individual uses speaking or writing.
Activities related to the act of speech
In order for a person to be able to freely and adequately understand someone else's speech and create his own statements, he must have a good knowledge of listening, reading, speaking and writing skills. All these types of speech activity have their own methods of learning and development, assessing the quality of knowledge and their practical application, and their individual characteristics. Listening and reading are based on perception, speaking and writing are based on creative production or the creation of textual material. Speaking and listening are involved to the greatest extent in the system of human communication - approximately in equal percentage correlation. In the second place is reading and in the last - the letter. Consider in detail the first of them.
Oral types of speech activity depend on the situation of communication, on its communicative tasks. Talking, a person expresses the most diverse modality of his statements. He answers questions and asks, complains, doubts, thanks, expresses joy. According to the purpose of statements in linguistics, messages are divided into 3 types - a question, an impulse, a message.The types of oral speech activity in their practical implementation are based on certain standards, formed,selected and laid in the human mind in the process of development of society as a whole. Therefore, when the speaker builds his utterance, he selects precisely those models of building sentences that are more relevant to the situation, the goal of communication. The composition of statements, their grammatical and syntactic design, stylistic subtleties - all this is, as it were, extracted from memory by a person, and does not arise spontaneously. Otherwise, the process of communication would be extremely difficult: it is difficult to perform all these operations at the same time. In addition, oral types of speech activity suggest that the speaker must foresee, anticipate the result of the psychological impact of his statement on the interlocutor. And if a certain language automatism is not present in the speech, fruitful communication will be difficult.
As for listening, the ability to listen and understand the interlocutor is no less subtle and important than the ability to convey one’s thought. In most cases, from the listened information a person remembers only 50-60%. Comprehends about the same.It should be noted that the types of speech activity associated with listening depend on factors such as the psycho-type of the person, her interests, sphere of activity, age, gender, etc. The listening time is also important: it can continue for no more than 25-30 minutes. The types of speech activity in the form of listening are themselves divided into the following subspecies:
generalized or global, when the main idea of a statement is grasped, without going into details;
detailed block when to remember and understand the individual points of the statement;
As for the way of listening to information, it can be as passive, when the interlocutor only perceives and interprets the information, and active, when a person comments on what he is listening to.