Viktor Vladimirovich Vinogradov, Russian literary critic, linguist: biography, works
Domestic linguistics can not be imagined without such a significant scientist as Viktor Vladimirovich Vinogradov. Linguist, literary critic, a man of encyclopedic education, he left a significant mark in the doctrine of the Russian language, did a lot for the development of modern humanities and educated a whole galaxy of talented scientists.
Beginning of a journey
Viktor Vladimirovich Vinogradov was born 12 January 1895 year in Zaraisk, in the family clergyman. In 1930, his father was repressed, and he died in exile in Kazakhstan. Mom, who went into exile for her husband, also died. The family was able to form a strong desire for education in Victor. In 1917 he graduated from two institutes in Petrograd: the historical-philological (Zubovsky) and the archaeological.
Path to science
Viktor Vladimirovich Vinogradov as a student showed brilliant scientific talents. Immediately after graduation, he is invited to continue studying science at the Petrograd Institute, first he deals with the history of the church schism, writes scientific work. At this time he was noticed by Academician A. Shakhmatov, who saw great potential in the beginning scientist and tried to get Vinogradov a scholarship to prepare a thesis on Russian literature. In 1919, he wrote a master's thesis under the direction of A. Shakhmatov about the history of sound [b] in the North-Russian dialect. After that, he is given the opportunity to become a professor at the Petrograd Institute, in this capacity he worked 10 years. After the death of A. Shakhmatov in 1920, Viktor Vladimirovich acquires a new mentor in the person of an outstanding linguist, L. V. Shcherba.
Achievements in literary criticism
Vinogradov simultaneously engaged in linguistics and literary criticism. His works became known in a wide circle of the Petrograd intelligentsia. He writes a number of interesting works on the style of the great Russian writers AS. Pushkin, F.M. Dostoevsky, N.S. Leskova, N.V. Gogol. In addition to stylistics, he was interested in the historical aspect in the study of works of literature. He develops his own research method, which is based on the extensive involvement of the historical context in studying the characteristics of a literary work. He considered it important to study the specifics of the author's style, which will help to penetrate deeper into the author's intention. Later Vinogradov creates a harmonious teaching about the category of the image of the author and author's style, which was at the crossroads of literary criticism and linguistics.
Years of persecution
In 1930, Viktor Vladimirovich Vinogradov leaves for Moscow, where he works in various universities. But in 1934 he is arrested on the so-called "Slavists' case". Almost without investigation, Vinogradov was sent to Vyatka, where he would spend two years, then he was allowed to move to Mozhaisk and even allowed to teach in Moscow. He had to live with his wife illegally, exposing both to risk.
In 1938 he was forbidden to teach, but after Viktor Vladimirovich wrote a letter to Stalin, he was returned to Moscow residence permit and the right to work in Moscow. Two years passed relatively calmly, but when the Great Patriotic War began, Vinogradova, as an unreliable element, was sent to Tobolsk, where he would stay until the summer of 1943. All these years, in spite of everyday unsettledness and constant fear for his life, Viktor Vladimirovich continues to work. He writes stories of individual words on small sheets, they are found in the archives of the scientist very much. When the war was over, Vinogradov's life was improving, and he, having returned to Moscow, began to work hard and fruitfully.
Linguistics as a vocation
Victor Vladimirovich Vinogradov won worldwide recognition precisely in linguistics. His scientific interests lay in the field of the Russian language, he created his own scientific school, which relied on the previous history of Russian linguistics and opened up wide opportunities for describing and systematizing the language. His contribution to Russian studies is extremely high.
Vinogradov built a theory on the grammar of the Russian language, based on the views of A. Shakhmatov, he developed a theory of parts of speech, which was set out in the fundamental work "Modern Russian Language". His works on the language of fiction, which unite the resources of linguistics and literary criticism, are interesting, and they allow to penetrate deeply into the essence of works and author's style. An important part of the scientific legacy are works on textology, lexicology and lexicography, he singled out the main types of lexical meaning, created the doctrine of phraseology. The scientist was a member of the group on compiling an academic dictionary of the Russian language.
Prominent scientists with a wide range of scientific interests often create significant work in several areas, so was Viktor Vladimirovich Vinogradov. "Russian language. Grammar doctrine of the word "," On the language of fiction "," On artistic prose "- these and many other works brought glory to the scientist and combined the research opportunities of stylistics, grammar and literary analysis. Significant work is the unpublished book "The History of Words", which V.V. Vinogradov wrote all his life.
An important part of his legacy is the work on syntax, the book "From the History of the Study of Russian Syntax" and "Basic Questions of Proposal Syntax" became the final part of the grammar grammar, in which he described the main types of sentences, singled out the types of syntactic connection.
The work of the scientist was awarded the State Prize of the USSR.
Career of a scientist
Viktor Vladimirovich Vinogradov, whose biography has always been associated with academic science, has worked very fruitfully. Since 1944 year on 1948 year he was the dean of the philological faculty of Moscow State University, there also 23 headed the department of the Russian language. In 1945, he was elected academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences, having passed the position of corresponding member. Since 1950 year for 4 years he headed the Institute of Linguistics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. And in 1958, Academician Viktor Vinogradov becomes the head of the Institute of the Russian Language of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, which will manage more than a quarter of a century. In addition, the scientist occupied many public and scientific positions, he was a deputy, an honorary member of many foreign academies and a professor at Prague and Budapest universities.
V.V. Vinogradov 4 October 1969 year in Moscow.