What distinguishes a bacterial cell from a plant cell: features of structure and vital activity
Almost all living organisms are made up of cells. The features of the structure of these smallest structures depend on the features of life activity and the level of organization of all representatives of nature. In this article, we will look at how a bacterial cell differs from a plant cell and what are the principles of their work.
Plant cell composition
Surface apparatus of plant datastructures is represented by a cell wall that is distinguished by its strength and rigidity due to the content of cellulose carbohydrate therein. In the internal environment (cytoplasm) there are permanent cellular structures. They are called organoids. The largest of these is the vacuole. It is a cavity filled with water with dissolved nutrients. The structure of the plant cell is also represented by such structures as the nucleus, plastids of chloroplasts, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes, Golgi complex, lysosomes.
Similarity of bacterial and plant cells
In the general plan of the structure of plant andbacterial cell there are a number of similar features. What structures are common to such different organisms? First of all, this is the presence of the cell wall and membrane, genetic material, cytoplasm. The structure of the plant and bacterial cells is also characterized by a number of general structures: ribosomes, centrioles, lysosomes. Both of them have organelles of movement. In unicellular green algae, chlamydomonas and in a convoluted spirochete they are flagella.
Fabrics of plants
Bacteria are highly unicellular organisms. But the plant organisms in this regard are more diverse. They can consist of one cell, like the green algae of chlorella, or form colonies, like volvox. But the overwhelming majority of plants is formed by tissues. These structures are a collection of cells that are identical in structure and functions. Their several species are combined into organs. Thus, the leaf of the plant is formed by cells of the integumentary, conducting, mechanical and basic tissues.
Peculiarities of the Structure of Prokaryotic Cells
And now let's understand, than differsbacterial cell from plant. Let's start with the chemical composition of the surface apparatus. The cell wall of plants includes cellulose, and bacteria - murine or pectin. All of them are complex carbohydrates. According to the structure of the genetic material, bacteria are prokaryotes. This means that they do not have a formed nucleus, like cells of plants, animals or fungi. In the cell of the bacterium there is a single ring DNA molecule - nucleoid. This structure provides the easiest way to multiply - division in two.
What is the difference between a bacterial cell andplant in terms of internal content? It is more primitive. In the cells of bacteria there are no mitochondria, EPS, Golgi complex and all kinds of plastids. The last type of organelle determines the type of nutrition of organisms. Plants are capable of photosynthesis, because in their cells there are green plastids of chloroplasts. On their inner surface there is a complex chemical transformation of inorganic substances into carbohydrate glucose, which plants use as a source of energy, and oxygen. Most bacteria are heterotrophs by type of food. They are able to absorb only the finished organic matter. And large macromolecules can not penetrate through their membrane. Therefore, bacteria absorb only pre-cleaved organic substances dissolved in water and lipoids. Among them there are also hemotrophs, which receive energy in the splitting of chemical bonds.
Such a structure of a bacterial cell determines andfeatures of its vital activity. The main way of reproduction of these organisms is division in two. Despite the fact that this method is one of the simplest, it is characterized by high productivity. So, one cell forms up to a million of such individuals within just ten hours. Bacteria are also capable of forming spores. Most often, this occurs when adverse conditions occur. In this case, the mother cell is destroyed. But the dispute can for a long time be affected by both low temperatures and boiling. This device has a protective value.
So, in the article we have analyzed what is differentbacterial cell from plant. First of all, this is the structure of the genetic apparatus. Bacteria do not have a formed nucleus, and the genetic material is represented by a circular DNA molecule. The main differences also concern the chemical composition of the cell wall, the way of nutrition and the presence of many organelles.