What do fairy tales teach?
Almost all children (and some adults) love fairy tales. A fascinating story, an interesting plot, favorite characters attract the imagination of the child, developing a creative view of the world, forcing the kid to hold his breath in anticipation of a miracle.
But many tales have not only entertaining and educational functions. They also, as it were, gradually, are engaged in the upbringing of our children, passing popular wisdom and basic moral principles from generation to generation. What do fairy tales teach, how do they attract children and adults?
Model of the universe
The kid, who still knows so little about the world around him, through a fairy tale indirectly gets acquainted with reality, passing the stage of learning from someone else's experience. After all, these small (and seemingly simple at first glance) works of folk art are for children one of the ways of knowing the world, its improved model, where good always triumphs over evil, human vices are punishable, wealth is not the most important thing in life, and friends are valued above all .Actually, fairy tales briefly, concisely describe to the child the world as it should be, ideally. More about why the child needs fairy tales, read our article What is a fairy tale.
The formation of the image of a positive hero plays an important role in the upbringing of children: first of all, good (because good always wins), true to his word, sometimes clever, sometimes strong, defender of his Fatherland. If we talk about Russian fairy tales, these are such works as “Ivan Tsarevich and the Gray Wolf”, “Nikita Kozhemyaka”, “The Flying Ship”, “The Soldier Rescues the Princess”, “By Deed”, Sivka-Burka, various fairy tales about Russian warriors (the names are given according to the book by A. N. Afanasyev).
The positive hero, as a rule, undertakes to perform unbearable, it would seem, work. One he clearly can not cope. In the fact that he wins the victory, the important role of the friends of the hero, who always come to help in difficult times. It can be people, animals, birds, fish. Because the hero always helps those who met him on the way and asked for help. Thus, fairy tales teach the child to value friendship and to believe in mutual aid.There are even works dedicated specifically to this feeling. For example, "Turnip" or "Teremok", where animals and people provide assistance to each other.
Do not judge people by their appearance
Ivan the Fool in the fairy tale finale turns out to be the prince, the frog is a beautiful bride. Such transformations teach a child from childhood not to judge a person "by clothes", by the amount of wealth (the tale "Koschey Immortal"), but to be judged by his deeds. By the way, in Russian fairy tales, Baba Yaga is not always a negative character. Sometimes she checks the hero, assigns him a test and gives him wonderful objects or gifts (tales "Ivan Tsarevich and the Gray Wolf", "Koschey the Immortal", "Vasilisa the Beautiful").
Russian fairy tales are taught diligence, the fact that we must not be afraid of difficulties. After all, every good thing from the first attempt cannot be done (in fairy tales about the Snake Goryny, the hero-hero goes to the monster three times and finally wins, after all), and courage and perseverance will be rewarded with victory.
And yet - teach patriotism. Especially fairy tales and epics about the Russian heroes. Dobrynya Nikitich, Alyosha Popovich, Ilya Muromets are the identification of the defense of the Motherland against any aggressor.These popular heroes evoke a sense of admiration for their courage, strength, intelligence, ability to stand up for their homeland and for themselves. Thus, in a child, a feeling of love for his Motherland, a desire to protect her from foreign invaders, is formed.
And yet - teach love for parents, respect for elders. It is the hero who performs the assignment of the father-king, always more revered than his careless brothers. As a reward, he fulfills his instructions and receives “half the kingdom”.
Beasts, birds, fish
Interestingly, animals in the fairy tales of the Russian people are the personification of human qualities. Even formed a kind of stamps, the same for many works.
The fox is a cheater. It embodies the bad qualities: a tendency to deception, theft, tricks. She pretends to be weak and miserable, to get what she wants, she uses all her eloquence to achieve her own (for example, the tale "The Fox and the Wolf"). But often the fox and receives a well-deserved punishment for their lies, if her tricks harm the heroes.
Wolf - greedy, angry, but at the same time stupid. He easily gives in to the network of deceiving more cunning characters (Foxes, Kolobok, Zayats).Often in Russian fairy tales you can meet the opposition of the Wolf-Fox. In some fairy tales, the Wolf is also the personification of death (as he often eats someone). But good characters almost always beat him.
Small animals in Russian fairy tales (mice, hares) are kind, but also cowardly. Often they help the main character, are good friends.
All the morality that fairy tales teach is unobtrusive; it is perceived by the child easily, in a playful way. You can not deceive, you can not be greedy, you should always appreciate friends and help good, even if not familiar, people. fairy tales teach that good necessarily triumphs over evil, that a good act is “cyclical” and always returns to the one who does it, in the form of gratitude.
These children take lessons with pleasure, they live in a fairy-tale magical world, they want to return there again (they ask to read the same fairy tale again). And sometimes they come up with their own. This, again, develops the child's imaginative thinking, fantasy and speech skills.