What good did Lavrenty Beria for the Soviet people
Lavrenty Beria, along with Heinrich Yagoda and Nikolai Ezhov, is one of the main executioners of the Stalinist regime. He continued mass executions and deportations, was known for his cruelty. But his activity is now regarded by many as ambiguous. Acknowledging his crimes, Beria’s advocates call him a “talented manager” who has achieved many successes.
Activities in the NKVD: amnesty and foreign intelligence reform
Beria began his work as Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR by declaring an amnesty. Approximately 200 thousand people arrested under Yezhov on trumped-up charges as "enemies of the people" were released. Most likely, it was not the initiative of the new People's Commissar - Stalin understood that Yezhov overdid the execution of his instructions. It was necessary to show the people that there is justice in the country and "innocent people are not imprisoned."Beria acquired the image of "protector of legality".
He reorganized the activities of the foreign intelligence service of the USSR, with him even before the war an extensive network of agents was created, which worked for many years. Thanks to overseas agents, the Soviet Union received information about new technological developments, including the US work on the atomic bomb.
Contribution to the defense industry
In 1945, Beria was awarded the title of Marshal of the Soviet Union. So Stalin noted his achievements during the war. From June 30, 1940, he was a member of the State Defense Committee. His tasks included supervising the production of military equipment, monitoring the work of the Commissariat of the coal industry and the People's Commissariat of Railways.
The communications were created as quickly as possible, which allowed the most important enterprises and their employees to be evacuated to the rear. It was built 3570 km. railways, 4200 km. highways, 842 airfields.
After the evacuation of the plants in the shortest possible time began to produce tanks, aircraft, ammunition. New models were introduced. From 1942 to 1944 The Soviet Union produced an average of 2,000 tanks and self-propelled artillery mounts monthly.Up to 450 thousand machine guns were produced annually, while in Germany the number was 250 thousand. Superiority over Germany was achieved in other areas.
The first experiments related to uranium were started in the USSR before the war. During the war, intelligence reported on US and British atomic projects. Beria began to provide information to Kurchatov, the scientific leader of the Special Committee at the State Defense Committee. A special laboratory is being created. On December 3, 1944, Stalin signed a decree: “To entrust the development of work on uranium to Comrade Beria L. P. After the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, work on the creation of an atomic bomb in the USSR was further accelerated. Kurchatov admitted: "If it were not for him, Beria, there would be no bomb."
Beria ordered to count all the physicists of the country. They turned out to be 4212. There were not enough nuclear specialists, and they began to be urgently prepared. In 1945, intelligence delivered to the USSR a book-report on the creation of an atomic bomb in the USA.
Beria has created a total secrecy regime around the entire project activity. For any unauthorized conversations, the culprit, at best, was severely reprimanded.Scientists worked on the project, often literally delivered straight from the camps. The practice of the sharashkas created by Beria will not disappear even later. Some researchers believe that the formation of such institutions is also a positive achievement for Beria. Their activities saved the lives of many scientists who would otherwise die in the camps.
The bomb was created and tested in 1949. A few years later, Sakharov created a thermonuclear (hydrogen) bomb. She was tested after the arrest of Beria.
Termination of the “case of doctors”, “Mingrelian” case, anti-Semitic processes
After the death of Stalin, Beria saw himself as the next head of the USSR. Malenkov became the official head of the government, and Beria became the first deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers. He probably remembered the effect of the amnesty declared in the 30s, and closed the cases for which arrests were already in full swing. On his proposal on March 27, 1953, the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU approved the decree “On Amnesty”. Over a million more people have been released.
The good name of many doctors was restored, plans to deport Jews to uninhabited areas were canceled. The press wrote that the doctors "were arrested incorrectly, without any legal grounds." However, not all were released. Rehabilitation continued after the arrest of Beria.
Cancellation of passport restrictions and sensitive areas
In the “Draft Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR”, submitted by Beria Malenkov on May 13, 1953, it was proposed to abolish the passport restrictions on residence. Because of them, people who had served their sentences could not return home, get a decent job, reunite with their families. It was also said about the need to cancel the regime zone along the border of the USSR. The document said: “In the present situation, citizens who have served their sentences in places of detention or exile and thereby redeemed their guilt before society continue to suffer deprivation and are doomed to hardship. The project was satisfied. Restrictions on living in more than 300 cities and localities of the USSR were abolished.
Nomination of national personnel in the leadership of the republics
In many Soviet republics, for decades, “strangers” have occupied leading posts, people from the center. The local people did not like it. Therefore, a campaign was launched to attract representatives of the titular nationalities of each republic to the administration. This practice has been preserved for many years: the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Republic was from local, and the second was sent by order of the Central Committee of the CPSU.
Mitigation in the GDR
The division of Germany led to the fact that the inhabitants of its eastern part began to flee to the West. In many ways, the fault was the wrong policy of the new authorities. In order to combat mass emigration, Beria proposed repealing a number of ill-considered decisions. He spoke in favor of abolishing the policy of "accelerated construction of socialism" announced in 1952, restrictions on small and medium-sized private capital, planting agricultural cooperatives (a collectivization option). The proposal was approved by the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU, only Malenkov opposed.
However, along with these decisions, Beria was responsible for the deaths of many people. Already in our time, attempts were made to rehabilitate it, but the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation in May 2002 made a negative decision. It said that Beria and his associates were among those leaders "who organized at the state level and personally conducted mass repressions against their own people."