What is lexicology studying? Section of science, studying vocabulary
This article will discuss lexicology. What it studies, what it is, into which sections it is divided and which methods it has, we consider here.
Lexicology is a linguistic section that studies vocabulary. What we study lexicology, we learned, and now we will get acquainted with its general and private part. The latter is busy studying the lexical composition of a particular language. This science has focused all its attention on:
- the word and its meaning;
- word relationship system;
- historical facts through which the vocabulary was formed in the modern sense;
- There is a word difference in functional and stylistic character in a variety of speech spheres.
Object and Subject
The word serves as an object that studies lexicology. Another object of study is word formation and morphology. But,if in these sections of science the word is a means by which the grammatical structure and the derivational model are studied, as well as language rules, in the science of lexicology, the word is studied in order to understand the meaning of the word itself and the vocabulary. She studies not separate language units of oral speech, but, directly, the entire system of language.
What is lexicology studying in Russian? First of all, it is busy considering the Russian and Slavic languages, which have been actively developed during historical events.
The subject of lexicology is
- A word, as part of a language, considered using the word theory.
- The structure of the linguistic composition of words.
- The functionality of the lexical unit.
- Possible ways to replenish the language structure.
- Relationship with non-linguistic type of activity, such as culture.
Lexicology is a science that studies vocabulary, its foundation. The science is quite extensive and has many sections, including:
- onomasiology - a section on the process of naming items;
- Semasiology - a section that studies the word and phrases, namely their meaning;
- phraseology - studies the vocabulary relationship between each other, and between themselves;
- onomastics - busy exploring existing names;
- Etymology - a section that has paid attention to the historical origin of the word, also considers the abundance of the vocabulary as a whole;
- lexicography - focused on the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries;
- Stylistics is a section that studies the meaning of the sayings and words of the connotative type.
Lexicology is a science that studies the vocabulary of a language, and the number of words in it cannot be counted. One, only seventeen-volume collection of the “Dictionary of modern R.Ya.” includes more than 130,000 words, and the Oxford dictionary contains over 300,000 words.
Lexicology studies the vocabulary of a language, among which there are also little-known units of speech, such as agonyms, which refer to words with an incomprehensible meaning.
Speech units that are often used refer to the active vocabulary of a language. There are frequency dictionaries with which you can define frequently used words. However, there is the concept of a passive dictionary, which consists of elements of the language, which carry information about something, but are used relatively rarely.Such words refer to a limited vocabulary - dialect, professional, or slang.
We have learned what lexicology studies, and now turn our attention to the ways in which the replenishment of the vocabulary occurs.
The phenomenon of borrowing vocabulary from the languages of other nations belongs to one of the main such ways. Taken long ago, alien words are now considered originally Russian. However, very often this is not the case; an example of this is the unit of speech - bread, which came to Russian from German. As a result of borrowing, the original meaning of a word may change.
Another way to enrich lexical components is the formation of a new series of words. Such components of speech are called neologisms.
The further development of the fate of new words can be varied: some lose their novelty and are consolidated among other elements of the language, others can be considered new growths created by an individual author (occasionalisms). The expansion of the vocabulary is also due to the development of a new range of meanings for words that have been known for a long time and well.
Words that have sunk into oblivion
Lexicology studies words, among which are also considered obsolete units of language. Due to the influence of time on the word, by the way, it is out of use. This can be observed, for example, with the disappearance of an object or phenomenon, which was often used before. These words are called historicism. The disappearance of such a word leads to the loss of the realities that it carries in itself, but sometimes the realities themselves do not disappear, but are renamed and called archaisms.
Vocabulary - as a moving type system
Vocabulary is similar to the system, capable of promotion. This allows us to determine that words have a diverse relationship among themselves for various semantic reasons. These words include synonyms - speech units that have differences in form, but are close to each other in meaning.
There are words related to each other in the presence of the cause of commonality in the opposite sense - antonyms. They point to opposite "things." The opposite value of a single speech unit is called enantiosemia. An example would be the phrase: “listen” in the understanding of the phrase “listen carefully”, and in the understanding “skip past the ears.”
Link words can be expressed in the form.Virtually every language bears on itself words that have an external identity, may have different meanings. An example is the diversity of the meaning of the word - braid, which can be both an agricultural tool and a tangle of hair. This type of word is called a homonym.
Homonyms, in turn, include different types of differences of one character. If linguistic units coincide in the "form" of sounding only in the presence of individual reasons, then such words are called omoforms. Words that coincide in spelling, but differ in sound, led to the creation of the term - homograph. If the pronunciation is the same, but the spelling is different, then such words are called a homophone.
Paronyms include similar words, but having a difference in identity in the form and meaning parameters that are characterized. They also perfectly show us the essence of the formal type of communication.
There is a concept about interlanguage homonyms and paronyms. Such words have a formal similarity, but in different languages can have many meanings. They are called "false friends of translators."
Lexicology, as a section of linguistics, studies vocabulary components of any languages, and knows that they have a tremendous variety and heterogeneity.There are categories that are distinguished by the presence of special distinctive outlines. The following many subspecies are foreseen in the lexicology of the Russian language:
- by application, they are divided into: the commonly used type of words and units of vocabulary that are used in the confluence of special circumstances in science, poetry, vernacular, dialect, etc .;
- the magnitude of the values of emotional stress, which include units of speech, painted by emotional or neutral "color";
- in accordance with the historical development, dividing into archaisms and neologisms;
- according to the history of origin and development, dividing into internationalism, borrowing, etc .;
- in accordance with the functionality - units of vocabulary active and passive type;
Given the continuous development of languages, what is considered lexicology, includes insurmountable boundaries of learning, constantly expanding and changing.
In this science there is the concept of some problems, the study of which she is busy. Among them are:
- Structural problems, the decisive form of word perception, the structural basis of its elements.
- A semantic problem that is concerned with the question of the meaning of a lexical unit.
- Functional problems of the general system of language, exploring the role in the language of words and speech units.
Speaking about the first problem, and the aspect of development, it can be summarized that this science is busy establishing specific criteria by which it is possible to determine the differences and the identity of a separate series of words. To avoid this, there is a comparison of lexical units with the phrase, while developing a structure for analysis, allowing to establish the invariance of words.
The semantic problem expresses itself the question of semasiology - a science that studies the connections between words and specific objects. In lexicology, this is one of the extremely important objects of study. His study focuses on the meaning of the word, its individual categories and types, which allow you to create terms: monosymy (unambiguity) and polysemy (polysemy). Lexicology tries to investigate causal relationships that lead to the loss or appearance of new meanings in words.
The functional problem tries to study a lexical unit, in the form of an object, which is associated with another similar element and creates an integral language system.In this understanding, the role of grammar interaction with vocabulary is considered extremely important. They can each other, both support and limit.
We have determined that lexicology studies the vocabulary of the language, its structure, endangered units of speech, such as historicism, for example, built an idea of the meaning of words. Considered their types and variations, identified the problems of this science. Due to this, we can summarize that its value cannot be overestimated, since it is extremely important for the general system of the language and tracking the tendencies of its development.