How does a bath differ from a sauna? What is the difference between them?
In the world there are a huge number of different baths. There are even in Japan - there they are called "ofuro." There are bathhouses in Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico. Naturally, each country has its own traditions and bath rituals. In Russia, they usually build and use a Russian bath, as well as a Finnish sauna. Sometimes many people argue among themselves about what is better, more correct and more beneficial for the organism. Let's see how a bath is different from a sauna.
One of the most important differences is steam. Russian bath involves wet steam, but in the Finnish it is dry. What is it done for? Moisture saturated steam allows the use of low temperature air. Since the humidity reaches almost the maximum, sweat hardly evaporates from the human body. Consequently, the body warms up much more efficiently, and the level of dehydration is almost minimal.Dry steam will not allow sudden overheating.Since sweating is the main way to cool a person’s body, reducing its evaporation in high humidity almost completely eliminates the possibility of normal thermoregulation. In saunas, this risk is significantly reduced.
Now let's look at the numbers, how the bath differs from the sauna (there is a photo of both steam rooms in our article). Humidity levels range from 50 to 90 percent. The main factor that affects the human body is, as already noted, steam is wet and hot. The temperature in the Russian baths can reach 80 degrees.
Here, due to the use of dry steam, the moisture level is significantly lower - up to 15 percent. As for the effect of the sauna, it is based on the alternation of the effects of hot dry steam and cold water. Temperatures can reach 110 degrees.
The air pressure in the saunas is the same as outside. And the air is dry. It has a low level of thermal conductivity and warms up far beyond 100 degrees. But this heat is very easily tolerated.Besides the difference between a sauna and a Russian bath is in the principles of operation and the use of different steam, there is a difference in the design.Consider these features.
Design features: Russian bath
Often the building is located separately. Traditionally, the bath is built of wood, often conifers. Be sure to Russian bath includes two rooms. This is a steam room and a dressing room, which is both a hallway, and a dressing room, and a rest room. In all rooms there is a window. It is necessary for better ventilation.
In the dressing room there is a stove-heater, which is heated with wood. The main element that generates heat is stones - hence the name of the furnace, which is usually built in the wall between rooms. Its main part, as well as the stones are in the steam room.Furnaces can be open and closed. Open solutions are considered more practical, especially in the case when the bath is used as intended several times a day. This oven warms the room faster. However, due to frequent watering of stones, it quickly cools. Stones for these structures are laid above the firebox. The furnace can warm up to 300 degrees.
The closed device for better heat transfer is equipped with a special steam door.When wood is burned and the door is closed, the smoke does not enter the steam room. The stove can heat stones to very severe temperatures. Before visiting the steam room door open, and the room is heated. It is necessary to heat a closed oven in advance - approximately two to five hours before the start of the procedure. Due to the properties of the stones, such a construction can maintain heat for two days.
The difference between the bath and sauna is in the design features, and more precisely in the location of the stones. In the first case, they are placed inside the furnace, therefore, they heat up stronger and cool down very slowly. In the sauna, stones are placed on the surface of the stove.
The premises for them can be both separate and embedded. Inside the room is finished in the same way as in the Russian bath. Coniferous wood is used as materials.
What distinguishes a sauna from a Russian bath is the configuration of the room. Unlike Russian traditions, there are three rooms in the sauna. There is a steam room, a waiting room, and a shower. As for the steam room, it is smaller in area than in the Russian bath, it has no windows, but there is a forced ventilation system.The dressing room is characterized by large size.Traditional (wood-fired) and modern electrical solutions are used as the stove. Wood stoves can be of two types. Some are made of special refractory bricks, and the latter are completely made of metal. The main elements in them are the heater and the chimney. The metal construction can be with a built-in heater or with a chimney and hearth. Brick kilns are very similar to Russian in their design.
In the first case, the stones are laid on top of the furnace and special screens. In the second - are in a horizontal chimney, where they heat up. Now most often used electric furnaces. They have a lot of advantages over traditional wood-burning devices. The electric unit warms up faster, is able to automatically maintain the required temperature, does not require installation of a forced ventilation system and removal of combustion products. Electric oven can be closed and open type.
The main thing that distinguishes the Russian bath from the Finnish sauna is the so-called “light steam”. To obtain it, stones are poured over with water (they are inside the furnace).The higher the temperature of the stones, the better the water dislocates, the smaller the vapor particles. The air itself will be dry and hot at the same time. The steam convection process differs depending on how the furnaces are installed. At the bath they are inside, and at the sauna outside.
An important difference in ventilation systems. In the sauna is optimal when the internal and external pressure is the same. How does a bath differ from a sauna? The traditional Russian version operates on the principle of overpressure.
If this pressure difference is not in the room, then good steam cannot be obtained. Water vapor is generated inside the furnace volume. It turns out a small explosion. Next steam goes into the steam room through the doorway. Part of it is reflected from the walls and sides of the furnace, due to which the excess pressure increases even more. After that, the steam is released outside. Since it is the hottest, it goes upstairs to the ceiling.
What is different from the sauna bath, so it is a broom. It is difficult to imagine a Russian bath without a broom made of oak or birch. That he is the main attribute of Russian couples. Strong blows with a broom are not needed. It is enough just to slap them.It is nothing like a massage. Brooms in saunas are absolutely useless. In low humidity conditions, its leaves will dry out and crumble.
Effect on the body
Dry steam in the sauna is very useful for diseases of the cardiovascular system in severe and medium forms, with elevated pressure, diseases of the genitourinary system, as well as in the presence of kidney stones. Sauna is very useful for colds and skin diseases.
However, it is contraindicated for those suffering from diabetes and tuberculosis. Also, these procedures are not recommended for people with high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, severe nervous disorders, and diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
What is the difference between saunas and baths? Russian bath is not contraindicated for people with diseases of the upper respiratory tract (even on the contrary, it is useful). All this is so because in the Russian bath the walls of the upper respiratory tract are not irritated, which has a positive effect on the entire respiratory system.
What to build in the house?
We considered how the bath differs from the sauna, and now we can advise what to choose. In Finland, there is a sauna in almost every home - this is the main attribute of the Finns.As for the health benefits, then the baths and saunas are very beneficial for the human body. But if there are problems with the heart or the age is quite old, then it is better to stop at the Russian bath.It is important that there is enough space in the yard. Bath can be built only in private homes. Sufficient space is required compared to a sauna. The latter may be small and fairly compact. For the construction of baths need a suitable surface. The foundation must be columnar or tape, the room - insulated and insulated.
An important issue is the arrangement of ventilation and furnace construction. This is all necessary in the sauna, but there the stove can be electric or gas, which greatly simplifies the matter. For the construction of the sauna is necessary sewer system. This will equip the room with a swimming pool. For a home sauna, having a shower is enough. For the arrangement of the Russian bath all this is not necessary, especially if the well and the pond are located nearby. Bath should be built away from other rooms. What is the difference between a sauna and a Finnish sauna? At least by the fact that for its construction there are no restrictions.
So, we have considered the features and differences of the bath from the sauna. What is better to choose for yourself, it is purely for everyone. However, when building a specific object, you must take into account the peculiarities of your body. Not everyone will suit this or that type of steam room.