What is the name of the device for the interconnection of one computer with others?
What is the name of the device for computer interconnection withother computers? Well, if this question is spinning in your head, then you correctly do that you are reading this article. So, the device for the interconnection of one computer with others is an adapter (in other words, a network card). What is it? How does it work? What functions does it perform? All of these questions can be answered within the framework of this article.
What is an adapter
This is the name of the peripheral device of the computer,which directly works with the data transmission medium. Thanks to it, directly or using other communication equipment, communication with other computers is being established.
This device solves the problems of ensuringreliability of the exchange of binary data, which are represented in the form of the corresponding electromagnetic signals. They are transmitted using external communication lines. Because the adapter is a computer controller, it is running under the appropriate driver of the operating system. The differentiation of functions between them can vary, depending on the implementation.
Development of adapters
So, we already know that the device for the interconnection of one computer with others is an adapter. Now let's briefly see how this technology developed.
In the first local networks, adapters, together withsegment of coaxial cable, took over the whole spectrum of communication equipment. Thanks to them and organized the interaction of computers. Then, direct interaction between various computers was used.
Such a technology is still used, butMost modern standards also provide for a number of special communication devices (for example, a bridge, a switch, a hub or a router). They sort through some of the functions related to flow control.
You can often hear or read thatdevice for the relationship of one computer with others - the processor. Know that this is not true. The device for the interconnection of one computer with others is called an adapter or a network card, but nothing else! Whence such error has gone, it is authentically unknown, but if someone is mistaken, it will be better to correct it.
Data processing and coding functions
The adapter's functions are thatinformation must be transmitted in the form of a frame having a certain format. At the same time, encoding is understood as representing information with the help of certain signals in such a way that they can be received on the other side, but the meaning contained in them should not be lost.
Let's take a closer look at this.Several service fields are included in the frame. These include the address of the computer to which you want to transfer the data and the checksum of each frame. It will make a conclusion about the correctness of the information provided. About coding, it can be said that its meaning lies in overcoming the interference and enabling the receiving equipment to recognize the received data.
Also there are some technical nuances. So, when using broadband cables in a LAN, adapters do not use signal modulation. Since this is necessary only when the transmission is on narrowband communication lines (as such can be telephone channels of voice frequency).
The following function is used when interacting with the data transmission medium. It is used in those cases when it is necessary to access by a certain algorithm.
This is necessary due to the operation of the shareddata transmission medium. But there has been a tendency to abandon such an approach in favor of individual computer communication channels with the communication devices of the network (similar to what is done in wire telephony).
Transformation and synchronization function
Transformation and synchronization are necessary forproviding data in a readable form. So, thanks to the adapter, the information can be transformed from serial to parallel and vice versa. This is necessary because to simplify the synchronization task (as well as to reduce the cost of communication lines), the data is transferred gradually - one bit after another. For comparison - in the computer information is moved byte by byte.
With respect to synchronization, we can say that itIt is necessary to maintain a constant, conflict-free interaction between the receiver and the data transmitter. This task is successfully solved by the adapter, thanks to special coding methods, where an additional bus with clock sync signals is not used.
Thanks to this method it is easily ensuredperiodic changes in the state of the signal that is transmitted. In addition to problems with synchronization at the bit level, the adapter handles similar tasks and relative bytes and frames.
There are adapters on the internal data bus and the technology used. So, if we talk about the first case, then there can be the following types:
With network technologies, not everything is so unambiguous. Usually one adapter supports one of them. But, despite this, information is transmitted without problems. This is achieved due to the fact that different data transmission media are used. For example, one of the most popular technologies - Ethernet - can safely support coaxial and fiber optic cables or unshielded twisted pair.
If the adapter can support only one environment, then use converters and transceivers. What are these devices?
Transceivers and converters
Transceivers are also called transceivers. They are part of the network adapter and represent its terminal device that goes to the cable. Although, it should be noted that initially they were located on the cables (if we consider the first Ethernet standard), but then it was decided that it is more convenient to place it on the adapter.
Instead of a transceiver, you can use a converter. It deals with the coordination of information when using different media for data transmission. As an example, you can bring a local home network, where twisted pair with a coaxial cable is used.
Well, the task is fulfilled - the terminology andthe features of the adapters are explained. Now there should be no questions about how the device is called to connect one computer with other computers. In addition, we examined which functions are performed by adapters, what development path they have passed, and how they can be improved without major changes. For in-depth study of the topic of information provided is not enough, but as a beginning of studying the construction of physical data transmission, it will be useful to you.