What is the Shafi'i madhhab?
Islam as a religion in recent decadesbecomes an object of close study on the part of not only Muslims, but also representatives of other faiths. This is facilitated by the world political situation, literature and cinematography. Briefly talk about Islam is unlikely to work, but for an initial acquaintance you can study the madhhabs - religious and legal schools. One of the most popular in the world, and in particular in Russia, is the Shafi'i madhhab. Who is its founder and what is he like?
General information about Islam
Islam is one of the three world monotheisticreligions, which was established in the VII century. The founder was the Prophet Muhammad. According to the legend, he is a descendant of the prophet Ismail, who with his father Ibrahim built on the territory of the present Mecca of Kaaba - the shrine of all Muslims of the world. An interesting feature of this city is that only Muslims are permitted to enter its territory. Islam, despite many historical and geographical changes, remained virtually intact, thanks to the fact that the main religious sources - the Koran and the Sunnah - are written in Arabic.
What is the Shafi'i madhhab?
In Islam, under the madhab, they understandreligious and legal school based on an understanding of the imam of the sacred texts of the Quran and the Sunnah. At the beginning of the formation of the Islamic law school, hundreds of madhhabs appeared, but only four became widespread: Khanbalit, Malikit, Shafi'i and Hanafi.
At the moment, the Shafi'i madhhab is one of thebut the largest number of its followers live in Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Pakistan, Iraq and the Caucasus. The majority of Shafi'ite Sunni Muslims live in Yemen and Iran.
Imam Al-Shafiqi: biography
The founder of the Shafi'i law school was ImamAl-Shafi'i is a descendant of the family of the prophet Muhammad. This fact is often mentioned in the hadith, and as a proof, it is possible to indicate a related relationship between the parents of Ali ibn Abu Talib and the mother of the Imam. He was born in Gaza, but after his father's death, as a child, he was transported to Mecca, to his father's family. The city had a significant influence on the formation of it as a theologian, since he was among the connoisseurs of fiqh, hadith and Arabic.
To deepen his knowledge at the age of 20, he moved to Medina,where he studied the subtleties of Arabic and Malikit Fiqh. His teacher was Malik ibn Anasa - the creator of the Malikite religious-legal school. In 796, his teacher died, and the imam returned to Mecca, where he was appointed judge in Najran (Saudi Arabia). But later he was arrested on false charges and released due to the intercession of the Baghdad Supreme Judge Ash-Shaibani, a former disciple of Abu Hanifa. After studying the Hanafi madhhab, he developed his own, in which he united the foundations of the Malikite and Hanifite schools. His Shafi'i madhhab has gained popularity.
After moving to Egypt, he makes changes in thehis writings and fatwas, as he gets acquainted with the early theological heritage. For this reason, the work of Al-Shafi'i is divided into early and late, which leads to disputes within the madhhab.
Common features of the madhhabs
All madhhabs have one information base - the Koran and the Sunnah (a collection of hadiths - stories from the life of the Prophet Muhammad), and therefore they share several common features:
- Shahada - the formula, after the utterance of whicha person becomes a Muslim. It sounds like this: "I testify that there is no one worthy of worship except Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is his slave and messenger."
- The performance of the prayer is a fivefold prayer.
- Fasting in the month of Ramadan involves refusing to eat,water, smoking and sexual intercourse during the day. It is of a spiritual nature, since it is intended for the upbringing and taming of nafs (negative desires and passions inherent in impure force). Thus, the Muslims want to achieve the satisfaction of the Most High.
- Payment of zakat - the annual tax of Muslims in favor of the poor.
- Hajj is a pilgrimage to Mecca to the Kaaba once in a lifetime. One of the prerequisites is a financial opportunity to travel.
The distinctive features of the Shafi'i madhhab
Despite the mandatory observance of the pillars,the founders of the madhhabs and their followers disagree until now on the observance of religious rituals. This is because the pillars of Islam are spelled out in the Holy Book, and their fulfillment is explained in the Sunnah, and some stories from the life of the prophet to some theologians could reach, and others - no. Thus, there are differences between the madhhabs. Since the Shafi'i madhhab is based on the Abu Hanifa law school, in particular, one should consider the difference between the Hanafi madhhab and the Shafi'i:
- When issuing legal regulations, the Koran and the Sunnahare an information base with the same role and value. But if some hadith contradict, then the main role is occupied by the Koran, and the hadith is considered weak. Hadiths from the prophet's companions and individual transmitters possess great value.
- Ijma is divided into 2 categories: decisions based on a direct and unequivocal argument from Revelation, and decisions that have an ambiguous and controversial basis.
- If there are differences of opinion, there is no preference for one statement to another.
- Kiyas, or judgment by analogy from situations,described in the Quran or the Sunnah. With this method, there is no preference for the non-conformity of the kiyas to any postulate of religion and consideration of interests in accordance with the main goals of the Sharia.
Performing the prayer. Ablution
The performance of the prayer on the Shafi'i madhhab -an obligatory condition for men and women who have reached the age of 14-15, who have reason and are in ritual purity. Thus, ablution is a prerequisite for the performance of Namaz. It is complete (ghusl) and small (voodoo). Voodoo-ablution according to the Shafi'i madhhab has the following order:
- Niyat (intention) to perform namaz for the sake of Allah. For example: "I intend to perform a farz (sunnat) fajr namaz for the sake of Allah."
- Face wash should be started from the forehead andContinue along the border where the hair line begins. If the face has a beard or mustache, through which the skin is visible, they need to be completely wet so that the water touches the skin.
- Washing your hands with elbows. If there is lacquer or dirt on the nails or under them, then you need to get rid of them so that the water gets under them.
- Wipe the head with a wet hand from the beginning of the border of the hair in the forehead and to the back of the neck. If there is no hair, then you need to wipe the skin.
- When washing feet and ankles, water should get between the fingers, under the nails, and in the presence of wounds and cracks and on them.
Ablution is considered accepted, if committed in this order.
Gusl - full ablution, performed after sexual intercourse, ejaculation, menstrual cycle and birth bleeding. The order of the ghusl:
- Make a vow to perform a full bath and say "Bismillah".
- Wash your hands and rinse your genitals.
- Make a small bath, wash your mouth and nose.
- Thrice pour and wash with water, head, right and left shoulders. For the rest of the body, walk with your hand so that there is not a single unwashed place left, including the ear canals and the navel.
Conditions for prayer, read by men
The basic conditions of prayer are the same for both sexes, but there are some differences in the ritual that come from the essence of men and women and their role in Islam. So, during prayer, you should:
- cover the aurat from the navel to the knees;
- in the belt and earthly bows you do not need to touch your hips with your stomach and keep your elbows wide apart;
- men during the Sunnah of Namaz can read surah and dua;
- in jamaat-namaz must stand close to the imam;
- during the prayer must stand behind the imam;
- pronounced azan and ikamat in sunna-prayer.
Conditions for prayer, read by women
Namaz according to the Shafi'i madhhab for women has the following distinctive features:
- The entire body should be covered freely with clothing, except face and hands.
- In the belt and earthly bows, keep the abdomen as close to the hips as possible, and the elbows to the body.
- During Sunnah-Namaz, one can not read Surah and Dua aloud, if a stranger can hear a voice.
- In jamaat-Namaz, women should stand from the Imam as far as possible.
- In the prayer with the female Imam, they line up on the right and left sides of it, but a little farther, so that the toes are not in line with the Imam's fingers.
- In obligatory prayers, in the absence of extraneous men, Ikamat can be pronounced.
- In sunna-salaam, neither the adhan nor the iqamat is pronounced.
Taravih-namaz according to the Shafi'i madhhab refers tothe Sunnah category, that is, the desirable one, and is performed every night during fasting in Ramadan. Includes 8 or 20 rak'ahs - 4 or 10 prayers for 2 rak'ahs each. To finish it is necessary with additional prayers of Witr from 3 rak'ahs - 2 rak'ahs and 1 rakat. How to make tarawih salah? The order of commission according to the Shafi'i madhhab is as follows:
- Perform night (Isha) fard and ratiba prayer,the following dua (1) is read: "La havlya wa la kyuvwata hlla bilah." Allahumma sally "ala Muhammadin wa ala ali Muhammadin wa sallim." Allaumma inna nasalukal jannat fana "usunika minannar."
- A tarawih prayer of 2 rak'ahs is performed and dua is read from the first step.
- Repeat step 2, read the next dua three times(2): "Subhanaallahi valhamdu Lillahi wa la illaah illaallahu vallahu akbar." Subhanahallahi "adada halkyihi variza nafsikhi vazinata" arshiyi v midad kalamati. " Dua is read from the first step.
- Repeat step 2, and read dua 1.
- Repeat step 3.
- Witr prayer is made of two rak'ahs, and the du'a from step 1 is read.
- It is performed Witr Namaz from the 1st rak'ah, and it is readthe following du'a: Subhanal Malikil kuddus (2 times) Subhanallahil Malikil Kuddus Subbuhanunududzun Rabbul Malyakati Warrukh Subhanana manta azzaza bil kuudrati val bakah va kaharal Ibad bil mavti valna fanana Subhana rabbika rabbi izzzi amma jasifun wa salamun "alal mursalina valhamdu lillahi rabbil" alyamin ".
Taravih-namaz according to the Shafi'i mazhab is one of the special prayers, since it consists of 20 rak'ahs and is one of the respectable Sunnat-prayers for Muslim believers.
Important information about the performance of the post
Fasting in the month of Ramadan is mandatory for alladult Muslims, regardless of gender. The main requirement is the refusal of food, water, smoking and sexual intercourse from the time of prayer to subha to the prayer of the Maghrib. What violates the post on the Shafi'i madhhab?
- Water or food swallowed intentionally, regardless of size.
- Penetration of any physical body through the anus, genitals, ears, mouth or nose.
- Intentional vomiting.
- Sexual intercourse or ejaculation due to masturbation or wet dreams.
- Menstrual and postpartum discharge.
- Loss of reason.
If any of the actions were committed toforgetfulness or whatever fasting, then fasting is not broken. Otherwise, you must refund the missed day or pay a fine, if possible. In addition, taravih under the Shafi'i madhhab is one of the desirable actions in Ramadan.
Books on the Shafi'i madhhab
The basics of the madhhab can be studied from books written by Imam Al-Shafi'i and his followers:
- "Al-Umm" of Al-Shafi'i.
- "Nihayatul matlyab" Al-Juwaynie.
- "Nihayatul matlyab" Al Ghazali.
- Al-Muharrar of Al-Rafiyah.
- "Minhaju t-Talibin" An-Nawawi.
- "Al-Manhaj" of Zakariya.
- "An-Nahj" Al-Jawhariy.
The books of the Shafi'i madhhab can not be imagined without their interpretation:
- Al-Wajiz and Al-Aziz of Al-Rafiyah.
- "Ar-Rauda" An-Nawawi.