Wiring in the apartment with your own hands: repair wiring and installation from scratch
It's no secret that electricity has long been an integral part of our lives. A complete existence without it is impossible either in the city or in the countryside. That is why the design of electrical wiring for the construction of housing of any type - almost the original task.
Of course, the installation of an electrically conductive system is an occupation that requires certain knowledge and skills, and sometimes even a special permit. Nevertheless, you can independently make wiring in your apartment. All you need is basic knowledge of electrical engineering, compliance with the requirements of the process and technology without
as well as several other aspects that will be considered in this article.
We will cover the entire process of wiring installation, from preparatory work to checking the operability of the structure, in as much detail as possible.Our tips will help you to cope with the electrical wiring in the apartment with your own hands at a professional level.
We make the circuit of electroconducting
Like any case, the installation of electrically conductive systems in the room should begin with the design. Experts advise to put a marking on the walls, which will indicate where the wires will be located, lighting devices connecting conductors and sockets. In addition to your own preferences in planning the lighting of the room, you should take into account the individual features of the room and the following rules:
- Current-carrying cables are located strictly horizontally or vertically;
- Turns of cables are formed at right angles;
- The distance between the bundles of cables and ceilings is 150-200 mm;
- The distance between the bundles of cables and the openings of windows or doors is not less than 100 mm;
- Switches of light are placed on the side of the door handle at a height of 0.8 meters or 1.5 meters from the floor;
- Electrical outlets are located at any convenient height for the user;
- The number of outlets is usually calculated from the ratio of 1 element to 4 linear meters of the wall;
- The location of the sockets in adjacent rooms in adjacent grooves is acceptable;
- It is recommended to place the switchboards close to the place where the power cables are inserted at 1500-1700 mm from the floor;
- It is mandatory to provide for the possibility of connecting the protective earth to the body of the shield.
When you have decided on the location of the cables and the installation of electrical components, make a wiring diagram with your own hands on paper, observing the scale relative to the size of the room. This will come in handy to you in the future, if you need to repair the wiring.
Drawing up a wiring diagram for a private house
Electrical wiring in the apartment and in a private house can differ significantly among themselves, due to certain features of the construction, location of premises, used building materials. Accordingly, the scheme also requires an additional approach.
- The most common for private houses is a scheme designed as follows: on the façade there is a common circuit breaker, to which a cable is connected that feeds the common switchboard in the house.The shield is used to supply and distribute electricity throughout the premises.
- In order to ensure trouble-free operation and maintenance of the network, during the design of the scheme, split the system into groups according to certain types. For example, floor, room, or on the principle of "lighting - power consumers - external communications." Take into account the current loads for each group separately.
- To connect groups of consumers among themselves it is necessary, using additional automatic switches installed in the distribution board. In some cases, for example, when consumers connected to aggressive conditions are connected, such protection elements as RCDs are connected.
- When calculating the scheme, use the house plan. Thus, it will be easier for you to rely on individual features of the building.
Remember the basic recommendations when installing electrical wiring by yourself in any premises:
- The phase is broken by a switch;
- For each room, at least one junction box is recommended;
- Such devices as a washing machine, a boiler, an air conditioner, it is desirable to power up separate lines to ensure the grounding of the housing.
Tip: mount the sockets so that the appliances that are powered by them are in close proximity. As for the kitchen, which is usually located several high-power appliances - refrigerator, boiler, dishwasher, - it is desirable to install sockets for each of them.
Tools and materials required for wiring
After the project is fully agreed and approved, you need to decide on the selection of the necessary materials and purchase them. This should be done taking into account all the technical features of the facility.
- When purchasing cable-conductor products, you should opt for isolated copper cables. The appropriate cross-section of conductors should be determined based on the power consumption of the object. In standard applications, for example in residential buildings, conductors with a cross-section of 1.5 / 2 mm for the lighting circuit and 2.5 / 2 mm for the power group are usually used. Due to this feature, these cables are used with a power consumption of lighting devices up to 4 kW with a total capacity of the other consuming elements of up to 6 kW.
- In addition to cables, you need to purchase junction boxes, sockets, switches, electricity meters and protective shutdown systems. If you plan to install wiring of an open type, you will need special plastic boxes, mounting clamps, corrugated hoses.
Advice: be sure to check the quality of the products purchased. Do not save on materials for electrical wiring: the use of low-cost components from little-known manufacturers can end badly in the process of operation.
Now you need to decide which type of wiring you want to use in your apartment: hidden or outdoor. Each species has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, which should be considered in more detail, before proceeding to work.
The concealed wiring is located in pre-prepared cavities inside the walls. This allows you to hide the wires, protect them from mechanical damage, and therefore - to ensure safety from fire. The shortcomings include the complexity of the method and the low maintainability of the structure.
External wiring is located on the surface of walls inside special boxes, pipes or grooves of floor skirting and fixed with appropriate fasteners.Of the disadvantages - unaesthetic appearance and vulnerability to external mechanical damage.
Now consider each option in more detail.
Installation of electrical wiring by the open method
This way of providing housing with electricity is considered the most simple and inexpensive. Since all current-carrying elements remain visible, maintenance and repair of the wiring, if necessary, is quite easy. But this method has some features that limit the use of such wiring in an apartment building. This is a low mechanical strength and primitive aesthetic characteristics.
Mount the open electrical wiring you can easily. To do this, use flat wires of brands APR, APPV, APRV. Mount them to the base of the wall in two ways:
- Prepared tin strips 1 cm wide, laying the electrical cardboard;
- using special plastic fasteners, fixed with nails or glue.
Pay attention: if laying of the current carrying line is carried out on the basis of flammable materials, it is necessary to lay a layer of heat insulation under the wires.
- When calculating the step of locating the retainers holding the wires, check that there is no slack in all positions. Lockers should be located at a distance of 50 mm from the corners and the locations of the main wiring elements.
- Pay special attention to the arrangement of the main elements of the power grid. All of them should be attached to the wall using wooden or plastic spacers, which will provide additional electrical insulation. Choose the size of the spacers so that they are not noticeable.
- After installing the cables and securing the installation and distribution boxes, proceed to circuit switching. To do this, lead the conductors into boxes, leaving a reserve of 75-100 mm, so that it would be convenient to conduct further installation work, and make their connection.
Installation of concealed wiring
In a house or apartment, a hidden type of electrical wiring is most often used, due to its invisibility and aesthetics. Here are the main recommendations that you need to adhere to in the workflow:
- The cable should be located either in pre-prepared stitches or under a layer of plaster;
- On the ground, where the wires intersect each other, provide additional insulation with a special insulating tape;
- Experts recommend that when fixing conductors on the wall surface, observe a pitch of 0.4-0.5 m, and for fixing use plastic fasteners or a method of freezing alabaster;
- Distribute and install boxes in pre-prepared grooves in the wall, using alabaster;
- Strengthen the places where the wires go to the lighting fixtures by installing insulating tubes.
Further work is carried out in the same way for both concealed and external wiring. You need to twist the wires in this order:
- Eliminate the cable from the external insulation, about 60-80 mm;
- From all the conductors wound into the box, cut approximately 50 mm of insulation;
- Using a knife, clean the wires of the cable to a metallic luster;
- Twist the cores corresponding to each other, insulate the exposed areas.
The last step of the installation works is to connect all electrical devices in the system and perform the setup of the circuit.
Repair of electrical wiring: how to do it correctly
Repair of wiring may be necessary for you in case of malfunctions. This can be evidenced by constant voltage fluctuations, flashing lights and light bulbs, which often burn out.
Stock up with such tools:
- Pliers, screwdrivers and side cutters with insulated handles;
- Nippers or knife for stripping wires;
- Voltage tester;
- Drill with special drills for concrete or for wood (depending on what walls you have made of);
- Wires, fittings, accessories;
- In some cases - a punch.
First of all, disconnect the network. The rupture or bare wire found during the repair must be immediately insulated. Use a special electrical tape for this purpose.
Wires at the place of the break should be twisted not with their hands, but with pliers - so the contact will be stronger. Even better, if you solder the torn wire, and place the spikes around with a special tape. On a small area it is better to replace the wire with a whole one.
The best option would be a complete replacement of all wiring, especially if the old wires are made of aluminum, and the new wires are made of copper.
Video about installing wiring yourself
We hope that our advice has helped you in your work. Please, ask your questions in the comments, share your experience, tell us what problems arose in the process and how you coped with them. Perhaps you are familiar with new ways and methods of conducting electricity. We are always happy to discuss with the readers everything new in construction and repair by our own hands.