Yegor Gaidar, Russian politician: biography, personal life, reforms
Egor Timurovich Gaidar from 1990 to 2009, with short breaks, headed the Economic Policy Institute during the transition period. It was he who led the government, called the reformist, who created and implemented the "shock therapy" and price liberalization.
The future politician was born in the capital of our Motherland on 03/19/1956. Father of Egor Gaidar was a war correspondent who later served as a rear admiral. The grandfathers of Egor Timurovich were famous writers. Literary works of Arkady Gaidar and Pavel Bazhov were even studied as part of the school curriculum.
In 1962, Timur Arkadyevich Gaidar with his wife Ariadna Bazhova and his six-year-old son Yegor arrived in Cuba. There they lived for some time, they were acquainted with Raul Castro and Che Guevara.
In 1966, they moved to Yugoslavia, where a ten-year-old boy first showed interest in economic issues.
In his youth, Egor played chess well and took part in many competitions.
After graduating from high school with a gold medal Yegor Gaidar became a student of the Faculty of Economics of the Moscow State University. Lomonosov. Studying at this university continued until 1978, then he continued his studies there as a graduate student.
The head of Gaidar was academician Stanislav Shatalin, who is considered to be his ideological soul mate.
In November 1980, Yegor Gaidar, whose biography was later closely connected with the problems of the economy, became a candidate of economic sciences. The dissertation was written by him according to the results of the analysis of estimated indicators in the cost-accounting system at enterprises.
From 1980 to 1986, the workplace of E. T. Gaidar was the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for System Research of the SCST and the USSR Academy of Sciences.
After that, during the year he worked as a leading researcher at the Institute for Economics and Forecasting Scientific and Technological Progress of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Its leader was Academician Lev Abalkin, who later assumed the post of Deputy Prime Minister of the Soviet Union N.I. Ryzhkov.
There are two versions of how Yegor Gaidar met A.Chubais, who filed and implemented the idea of privatization in our country.
According to one version, the acquaintance took place in St. Petersburg, when Gaidar received an invitation to participate in a cycle of seminars in 1982 on economic topics under the auspices of Chubais.
According to other data, their acquaintance took place later in 1983 during a joint participation in the activities of the state commission for studying the possibilities of economic transformation in the Soviet Union.
In the middle of 1986, the first open conference in Leningrad Snake Hill was organized by Gaidar, Chubais and the future major entrepreneur Peter Aven.
In the early nineties
From 1987 to 1990, Yegor Timurovich Gaidar was an editor in the economics department and a member of the editorial board of Kommunist magazine.
In 1990, he occupied the post of Pravda editor in the economic department.
From 1990 to 1991, he led the Institute at the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, which studied economic policy.
When the coup of the State Emergency Committee began, Yegor Gaidar of August 19, 1991, left the CPSU and joined the ranks of the defenders of the White House. During these events, Gaidar became acquainted with G. Burbulis, who recommended him to Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin as an experienced economist who can work on developing a plan for economic reform.
In early September, Gaidar became the head of the working group of economists, which was created by Burbulis and Alexey Golovko under the State Council of the Russian Federation.
The Fifth Congress was remembered by the deputies in Yeltsin’s program speech, the economic part of which was prepared by the Gaidar group.
Since October 1991, Gaidar became deputy chairman in the government of the RSFSR, in the scope of its activities included issues of economic policy. He was also appointed Minister of Economics and Finance.
Yegor Gaidar, whose biography has changed dramatically after the coup, initiated the famous “shock therapy” and price liberalization.
The post of Minister of Economy was at the time when the Soviet Union collapsed, and the laws practically ceased. Foreign economic activity went out of control, the functioning of the customs was destabilized.
State budgetary and foreign exchange reserves were at zero, so the only way out was, as the government of Yegor Gaidar believed, to defrost prices.
Work in the "government of reformers"
Since 1992, Gaidar became and. about. heads of government of the Russian Federation. Under his leadership, the "government of the reformers" created a privatization program, which was put into practice.
The reforms of Yegor Gaidar led to the elimination of the deficit, the launch of market mechanisms, currency reform and the privatization of the housing stock were carried out.
Gaidar played a certain role in the suspension of the Ossetian-Ingush conflict.
The discontent of the majority of the people and a certain part of government circles led to the fact that on 12/15/1992, Gaidar had to resign.
From 1992 to 1993, he was director at the Institute for Economic Issues in Transition, he also served as adviser to the President of the Russian Federation. He was responsible for issues related to economic policy.
Since September 1993, he was promoted to the post of first deputy head of the Russian government.
During the confrontation of the Supreme Soviet of Russia and Yeltsin in October 1993, Gaidar supported Boris Nikolayevich and appealed to Muscovites to defend the democratic foundations.
As Minister of Economy, he tried to take measures to reduce inflation.
At the very beginning of 1994, he had to resign, as he did not agree with the line pursued by Prime Minister Chernomyrdin.
In 1994-1995, politician Yegor Gaidar was a member of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, where he headed the "Choice of Russia" faction.
From June 1994 to May 2001, he served as chairman of the Democratic Choice of Russia.
It is curious that because of its characteristic appearance, inflexible character and increased performance, party members jokingly nicknamed him “Iron Winnie the Pooh”.
In 1995, Gaidar was again headed by the Institute for the Study of Economic Problems in the Transition Period, which he created in 1990.
By December 1998, the Russian Liberal Democrats were able to unite. In the leadership of the created public bloc "Just Cause" one could see, besides Gaidar and Chubais, Irina Khakamada, Boris Nemtsov and Boris Fedorov.
08/24/1999 Sergei Kiriyenko, Nemtsov and Khakamada created an electoral bloc called the Union of Right Forces.
After the parliamentary election campaign in 1999, the SPS introduced Gaidar on his list to the State Duma of the III convocation, where he became its co-chairman.
Due to the fact that the 2003 elections ended with the defeat of the Union of Right Forces, Gaidar decided to withdraw from the party leadership. Although, in connection with this decision, he was not nominated to the presidium of the political council of the ATP, elected in 2004, the ideological party curator Gozman Leonid claimed that Gaidar and Nemtsov were left with leadership positionsregardless of their lack of a formal post.
11/24/2006. Yegor Gaidar participated in the Irish conference, where he became ill. In the hospital, he found signs of poisoning.
Some journalists emphasize the fact that it happened the next day after his death in a London hospital from polonium poisoning of former FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko, the sharp critic of Russian President Putin and his political course.
Gaidar quickly recovered, and in a day he was already in Moscow, where he refused to comment on the assumptions about his intentional poisoning.
Since September 2008, the chairman of the party N. Belykh resigned. The reason for this was the information that the SPS planned to create a new right-wing party under the Kremlin wing.
Yegor Timurovich did not agree to take part in the creation of a new structure and left the party.
According to him, he did not condemn the position of political structures loyal to the regime, which are not formally part of the party of power, considering that they have the opportunity to play a positive role.
Gaidar, Chubais, and the temporary leader of the Union of Right Forces (SPS) Leonid Gozman called party members to cooperate with the authorities in order to create a right-wing liberal party.
The authors of this statement recognized the absence of a democratic regime in Russia. They expressed doubt that the right could in the future protect their values to the maximum extent. However, no one can force them to stand up for the values of others, as the creators of the ATP believed.
Wives and children of Yegor Gaidar
With his first wife Irina Smirnova, Gaidar was legally married at the age of twenty-two while studying at the fifth year of Moscow State University. They met as children. The grandmothers of the future spouses brought their grandchildren to the village of Dunino near Moscow in the summer, where the children rested together.
In this marriage two children were born: Peter and Mary, but soon the family broke up. Children were divided between former spouses. Egor Gaidar left himself a son, his wife after a divorce remained with her newly born daughter Maria, born in 1982, who for a long time remained on the mother’s last name.
Only in 2004, Maria took the name of the father. At one time she worked at the Institute for the Economy in Transition. In 2015, she moved to live in Ukraine, where she worked with the former Odessa Governor Mikhail Saakashvili.
The second time, Gaidar married Maria Strugatskaya, whose father, Arkady Natanovich Strugatsky, was a famous Soviet science fiction writer.
For the new wife Gaidar, it was also a remarriage. From the first marriage she had a son, whose name was Ivan.
During their life together with Yegor Timurovich and Maria Arkadyevna, they had a son named Pavel.
About the last years of politics
The politician devoted his last years to writing articles and books on economic topics.
Egor Timurovich Gaidar, whose books are popular among economists, has written several dozen publications over the last years of his life.
He knew English, Spanish and Serbo-Croatian.
In his monographs: “The Death of an Empire,” “Long Time,” “State and Evolution,” and many others, the author’s right-wing political and economic views are clearly visible.
He was an active opponent of the Yukos case. In his opinion, government circles, having inflicted reprisals on this company, caused economic damage to the state.
In 2007, Gaidar turned to the official structures of the United States and tried to convince them not to engage in missile defense systems in European countries.
Yegor Gaidar, cause of death
On December 16, 2009, in the morning, Yegor Gaidar was found dead in the bed of his country house in the village of Uspenskoye (Odintsovsky District, Moscow Region). He was fifty-four. News agencies learned about the death from his personal assistant, Gennady Volkov.
On the eve, according to the spokesman for Gaidar Valery Natarov, a meeting was held until 10 pm, in which Anatoly Chubais, Evgeny Yasin, Leonid Gozman and Yegor Gaidar took part. The reason for the death of Gaidar, according to the doctors, was a detached thrombus.
The meeting with Chubais addressed the problems of the development of Russian nanotechnology. After it ended, the participants said goodbye, and Gaidar, in good condition, left for his country house near Moscow.
In the evening, Yegor Timurovich managed to work on the book, which was planned as a continuation of his "Death of the Empire" and "Long Time". Death came at about four in the morning.
Gaidar’s daughter Maria, in her blog, published information that the cause of her father’s death was not a detached thrombus, but pulmonary edema, which was caused by myocardial ischemia.
She reported that shortly before his death, he saw his father, he had a good working mood, they were scheduled to meet again.
Farewell to the deceased was in the pulp and paper mill, and he was buried at the Novodevichy cemetery.
All state leaders of the country sent their condolences on the death of Yegor Timurovich Gaidar.
The then President Dmitry Medvedev, in particular, noted in the words of mourning that a talented economist had passed away, who had done much to shape the market fundamentals and transition the state economy to a new development direction. It was he who was not afraid to take all the responsibility during the most difficult period in the country.
Prime Minister Putin in a telegram of condolences noted that Yegor Timurovich was a talented scientist, writer and politician who left his mark in the history of the development of our state. His literary heritage will be studied by young economists for a long time, where they can learn a lot of useful things for themselves.